TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 74. CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS

SUBCHAPTER A. REQUIRED CURRICULUM

19 TAC §74.3

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §74.3, concerning the required secondary curriculum. The proposed amendment would update the list of high school courses for social studies and physical education that are required to be offered to students.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: The 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021, passed Senate Bill (SB) 1063, amending Texas Education Code, §28.025, to add a one-half credit course in personal financial literacy and economics as an option to meet the one-half credit graduation requirement for economics under the Foundation High School Program. SB 1063 requires that the SBOE adopt Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for a combined personal financial literacy and economics course to be offered beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. To ensure that students have the option of satisfying the economics graduation requirement with the new Personal Financial Literacy and Economics course, it is recommended that the SBOE add the new course to the list of social studies courses that districts are required to offer.

Additionally, in 2020 the SBOE adopted new Kindergarten-Grade 12 physical education TEKS, which will be implemented beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. The new TEKS replaced the existing high school physical education courses with three new courses.

The proposed amendment would add a requirement in subsection (b)(2)(D) that districts offer the new Personal Financial Literacy and Economics course. The amendment would allow the requirement to offer both Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits and Personal Financial Literacy and Economics to be reduced to one by the commissioner of education upon application of a school district with a total high school enrollment of less than 500 students.

The proposed amendment would also align the required secondary curriculum in subsection (b)(2)(E) with the changes to the high school physical education course offerings.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendment for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would expand an existing regulation by updating the list of high school courses required to be offered.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not limit or repeal an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be additional flexibility for students in meeting high school graduation requirements and clarity for districts and schools regarding course names. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendment is proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.025(b-1)(4), which requires the SBOE to by rule require as part of the foundation high school program that students successfully complete three credits in social studies, including one credit in United States history, at least one-half credit in government and at least one-half credit in economics or personal financial literacy and economics, and one credit in world geography or world history; and TEC, §28.025(b-22), as added by Senate Bill 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021, which requires that in adopting Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for a personal financial literacy and economics course, the SBOE must ensure that the required curriculum allocates two-thirds of instruction time to instruction in personal financial literacy and one-third of instruction time to instruction in economics.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendment implements Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002(a), and 28.025(b-1)(4) and (b-22), as added by Senate Bill 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021.

§74.3.Description of a Required Secondary Curriculum.

(a) (No change.)

(b) Secondary Grades 9-12.

(1) A school district that offers Grades 9-12 must provide instruction in the required curriculum as specified in §74.1 of this title. The district must ensure that sufficient time is provided for teachers to teach and for students to learn the subjects in the required curriculum. The school district may provide instruction in a variety of arrangements and settings, including mixed-age programs designed to permit flexible learning arrangements for developmentally appropriate instruction for all student populations to support student attainment of course and grade level standards.

(2) The school district must offer the courses listed in this paragraph and maintain evidence that students have the opportunity to take these courses:

(A) English language arts--English I, II, III, and IV and at least one additional advanced English course;

(B) mathematics--Algebra I, Algebra II, Geometry, Precalculus, and Mathematical Models with Applications;

(C) science--Integrated Physics and Chemistry, Biology, Chemistry, Physics, and at least two additional science courses selected from Aquatic Science, Astronomy, Earth and Space Science, Environmental Systems, Advanced Animal Science, Advanced Biotechnology, Advanced Plant and Soil Science, Anatomy and Physiology, Engineering Design and Problem Solving, Food Science, Forensic Science, Medical Microbiology, Pathophysiology, Scientific Research and Design, and Engineering Science. The requirement to offer two additional courses may be reduced to one by the commissioner of education upon application of a school district with a total high school enrollment of less than 500 students. Science courses shall include at least 40% hands-on laboratory investigations and field work using appropriate scientific inquiry;

(D) social studies--United States History Studies Since 1877, World History Studies, United States Government, World Geography Studies, Personal Financial Literacy, [and] Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits, and Personal Financial Literacy and Economics. The requirement to offer both Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits and Personal Financial Literacy and Economics may be reduced to one by the commissioner of education upon application of a school district with a total high school enrollment of less than 500 students;

(E) physical education--at least two courses selected from Lifetime Fitness and Wellness Pursuits, Lifetime Recreation and Outdoor Pursuits, or Skill-Based Lifetime Activities [Foundations of Personal Fitness, Adventure/Outdoor Education, Aerobic Activities, or Team or Individual Sports];

(F) fine arts--courses selected from at least two of the four fine arts areas (art, music, theatre, and dance)--Art I, II, III, IV; Music I, II, III, IV; Theatre I, II, III, IV; or Dance I, II, III, IV;

(G) career and technical education-- three or more career and technical education courses for four or more credits with at least one advanced course aligned with a specified number of Texas Education Agency-designated programs of study determined by enrollment as follows:

(i) one program of study for a district with fewer than 500 students enrolled in high school;

(ii) two programs of study for a district with 501-1,000 students enrolled in high school;

(iii) three programs of study for a district with 1,001-2,000 students enrolled in high school;

(iv) four programs of study for a district with 1,001-5,000 students enrolled in high school;

(v) five programs of study for a district with 5,001-10,000 students enrolled in high school; and

(vi) six programs of study for a district with more than 10,000 students enrolled in high school.

(H) languages other than English--Levels I, II, and III or higher of the same language;

(I) computer science--one course selected from Fundamentals of Computer Science, Computer Science I, or Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science Principles; and

(J) speech--Communication Applications.

(3) Districts may offer additional courses from the complete list of courses approved by the State Board of Education to satisfy graduation requirements as referenced in this chapter.

(4) The school district must provide each student the opportunity to participate in all courses listed in subsection (b)(2) of this section. The district must provide students the opportunity each year to select courses in which they intend to participate from a list that includes all courses required to be offered in subsection (b)(2) of this section. If the school district will not offer the required courses every year, but intends to offer particular courses only every other year, it must notify all enrolled students of that fact. A school district must teach a course that is specifically required for high school graduation at least once in any two consecutive school years. For a subject that has an end-of-course assessment, the district must either teach the course every year or employ options described in Subchapter C of this chapter (relating to Other Provisions) to enable students to earn credit for the course and must maintain evidence that it is employing those options.

(5) For students entering Grade 9 beginning with the 2007-2008 school year, districts must ensure that one or more courses offered in the required curriculum for the recommended and advanced high school programs include a research writing component.

(c) (No change.)

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201638

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 109. BUDGETING, ACCOUNTING, AND AUDITING

SUBCHAPTER C. ADOPTIONS BY REFERENCE

19 TAC §109.41

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes an amendment to §109.41, concerning budgeting, accounting, and auditing. The proposed amendment would adopt by reference the updated Financial Accountability System Resource Guide (FASRG).

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: The FASRG describes the rules of financial accounting for school districts, charter schools, and education service centers and is adopted by reference under §109.41. The proposed amendment to §109.41 would adopt Version 18.0 of the FASRG. Revisions to the FASRG would align the content with current governmental accounting and auditing standards, remove obsolete requirements, and remove descriptions and discussions of best practices and other non-mandatory elements.

Requirements for financial accounting and reporting are derived from generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). School districts and charter schools are required to adhere to GAAP. Legal and contractual considerations typical of the government environment are reflected in the fund structure basis of accounting.

An important function of governmental accounting systems is to enable administrators to assure and report on compliance with finance-related legal provisions. This assurance and reporting means that the accounting system and its terminology, fund structure, and procedures must be adapted to satisfy finance-related legal requirements. However, the basic financial statements of school districts and charter schools should be prepared in conformity with GAAP.

School district and charter school accounting systems shall use the accounting code structure presented in the Account Code section of the FASRG (Module 1). Funds shall be classified and identified on required financial statements by the same code number and terminology provided in the Account Code section of the FASRG (Module 1).

The following changes would be made to Modules 1-6 of the FASRG.

Module 1, Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR) and FAR Appendices

Module 1 would align with current governmental accounting standards. Proposed Module 1 would include the following significant changes. School districts and charter schools would be required to maintain proper budgeting and financial accounting and reporting systems. In addition, school districts would be required to establish principles and policies to ensure uniformity in accounting in conformity with GAAP established by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB) and the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB).

Module 2, Special Supplement - Charter Schools

Module 2 would align with current financial and accounting reporting standards. Proposed Module 2 would include the following significant changes. The proposed module would establish financial and accounting requirements for Texas public charter schools to ensure uniformity in accounting in conformity with GAAP. The proposed module would also include current guidance that complements the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) Audit and Accounting Guide, State and Local Governments and supplements the Government Auditing Standards of the United States Government Accountability Office (GAO). These requirements facilitate preparation of financial statements that conform to GAAP established by the FASB.

Module 3, Special Supplement - Non-profit Charter Schools Chart of Accounts

Module 3 would align with current governmental accounting standards. Proposed Module 3 would include the following significant changes. Charter schools would be required to maintain proper budgeting and financial accounting and reporting systems that are in conformity with Texas Education Data Standards (TEDS) in the Texas Student Data Systems Public Education Information Management System. In addition, charter schools would be required to establish principles and policies to ensure uniformity in accounting in conformity with GAAP established by the FASB. The proposed module would also include current auditing guidance that complements the AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide, State and Local Governments and supplements the Government Auditing Standards of the United States GAO. These requirements facilitate preparation of financial statements that conform to GAAP established by the FASB.

Module 4, Auditing

Module 4 would align with current governmental auditing standards. Proposed Module 4 would include the following significant changes. The proposed module would establish auditing requirements for Texas public school districts and charter schools and include current requirements from Texas Education Code, §44.008, as well as Title 2, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 200, Subpart F, Audit Requirements, that implement the federal Single Audit Act. The proposed module would also include current auditing guidance that complements the AICPA Audit and Accounting Guide, State and Local Governments and supplements the Government Auditing Standards of the United States GAO. These requirements facilitate preparation of financial statements that conform to GAAP established by the GASB.

Module 5, Purchasing

Module 5 would align with current purchasing laws and standards. Proposed Module 5 would include the following significant changes. School districts and charter schools would be required to establish procurement policies and procedures that align with their unique operating environment and ensure compliance with relevant statutes and policies.

Module 6, Compensatory Education, Guidelines, Financial Treatment, and an Auditing and Reporting System

Module 6 would align with current governmental accounting standards. Proposed Module 6 would include the following significant changes. School districts and charter schools would be required to maintain proper budgeting and financial accounting and reporting systems. The module would provide current information to assist local school officials' understanding of the numerous options for use of the state compensatory education allotment and provide current guidance for compliance.

The SBOE approved the proposed amendment for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Leo Lopez, associate commissioner for school finance, has determined that there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would expand and limit an existing regulation. The proposal would amend requirements and provide updated governmental accounting and auditing standards. In some instances, the proposed changes would add information, and in some instances, information would be removed.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not repeal an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Mr. Lopez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be alignment of the FASRG with current governmental accounting and auditing standards for school districts and charter schools. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendment is proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.055(b)(32), which requires the commissioner to perform duties in connection with the public school accountability system as prescribed by TEC, Chapters 39 and 39A; TEC, §7.102(c)(32), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to adopt rules concerning school district budgets and audits of school district fiscal accounts as required under TEC, Chapter 44, Subchapter A; TEC, §44.001(a), which requires the commissioner to establish advisory guidelines relating to the fiscal management of a school district. TEC, §44.001(b), requires the commissioner to report annually to the SBOE the status of school district fiscal management as reflected by the advisory guidelines and by statutory requirements; TEC, §44.007(a), which requires the board of trustees of each school district to adopt and install a standard school fiscal accounting system that conforms with generally accepted accounting principles. TEC, §44.007(b), requires the accounting system to meet at least the minimum requirements prescribed by the commissioner, subject to review and comment by the state auditor. TEC, §44.007(c), requires a record to be kept of all revenues realized and of all expenditures made during the fiscal year for which a budget is adopted. A report of the revenues and expenditures for the preceding fiscal year is required to be filed with the agency on or before the date set by the SBOE. TEC, §44.007(d), requires each district, as part of the report required by TEC, §44.007, to include management, cost accounting, and financial information in a format prescribed by the SBOE in a manner sufficient to enable the board to monitor the funding process and determine educational system costs by district, campus, and program; and TEC, §44.008(b), which requires the independent audit to meet at least the minimum requirements and be in the format prescribed by the SBOE, subject to review and comment by the state auditor. The audit must include an audit of the accuracy of the fiscal information provided by the district through the Public Education Information Management System.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendment implements Texas Education Code, §§7.055(b)(32), 7.102(c)(32), 44.001(a) and (b), 44.007(a)-(d), and 44.008(b).

§109.41.Financial Accountability System Resource Guide.

The rules for financial accounting are described in the official Texas Education Agency (TEA) publication Financial Accountability System Resource Guide, Version 18.0 [dated June 2021], which is adopted by this reference as the agency's official rule. A copy is available on the TEA website with information related to financial compliance.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201639

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 113. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES

SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §113.76

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §113.76, concerning personal financial literacy and economics. The proposed new rule would add Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for a new social studies course to comply with the requirements of Senate Bill (SB) 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: The 83rd Texas Legislature passed House Bill (HB) 2662, amending Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.0021, to require school districts and open-enrollment charter schools offering a high school program to provide a one-half credit elective course in personal financial literacy. In 2016, the SBOE adopted the proposed new personal financial literacy course. The course, 19 TAC §113.49, Personal Financial Literacy (One-Half Credit), Adopted 2016, was implemented beginning with the 2016-2017 school year.

In 2021, the 87th Texas Legislature passed SB 1063, amending TEC, §28.025, to add a one-half credit course in personal financial literacy and economics as an option to meet the one-half credit graduation requirement for economics under the Foundation High School Program. SB 1063 required that the SBOE adopt TEKS for the personal financial literacy and economics course and that the required curriculum for the course allocate two-thirds of the instructional time to personal financial literacy and one-third of instructional time to economics.

A personal financial literacy and economics TEKS review work group convened twice in January 2022 and once in February 2022 to draft recommendations for the proposed new course. The work group's charge included developing recommendations for revisions to §113.49, Personal Financial Literacy (One-Half Credit), Adopted 2016; §113.31, Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits, High School (One-Half Credit), Adopted 2018, and §113.61, Economics Advanced Studies (One-Half Credit), which will be presented to the SBOE for discussion at a future meeting.

The SBOE approved the proposed new section for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect (2022-2026), there are no fiscal implications to the state. However, there will be implications for Texas Education Agency (TEA) if the state develops professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revised TEKS. Any professional development that is created would be based on whether TEA received an appropriation for professional development in the next biennium.

There may be fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the proposed revisions to the TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: TEA staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would create a new regulation by proposing new social studies TEKS required to be taught by school districts and charter schools offering the course.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not expand, limit, or repeal an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be the addition of TEKS for a new social studies course to comply with the requirements of SB 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021, that would allow students to fulfill their economics graduation requirement by successful completion of the course. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new section is proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, 28.025(b-1), as amended by Senate Bill (SB) 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021, which requires the SBOE to determine by rule specific courses for graduation under the foundation high school program; TEC, 28.025(b-22), as added by SB 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021, which requires that in adopting TEKS for a personal financial literacy and economics course, the SBOE must ensure that the required curriculum allocates two-thirds of instruction time to instruction in personal financial literacy and one-third of instruction time to instruction in economics.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new section implements Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a) and (c); and 28.025(b-1) and (b-22), as amended and added by Senate Bill 1063, 87th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2021.

§113.76.Personal Financial Literacy and Economics (One-Half Credit).

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. Students shall be awarded one-half credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) The Personal Financial Literacy and Economics Course emphasizes the economic way of thinking, which serves as a framework for the personal financial decision-making opportunities introduced in the course. Students will demonstrate the ability to anticipate and address financial challenges as these challenges occur over their lifetime. In addition, students are introduced to common economic and personal financial planning terms and concepts. As a result of learning objective concepts and integrating subjective information, students gain the ability to lead productive and financially self-sufficient lives.

(2) Personal Financial Literacy and Economics builds on and extends the economic content and concepts studied in Kindergarten-Grade 12 social studies in Texas. The course provides a foundation in both microeconomics and macroeconomics. Students will survey the impact of demand, supply, various industry structures, and government policies on the market for goods, services, and wages for workers. Macroeconomic study involves economic systems with an emphasis on free enterprise market systems, goals of full employment, price stability, and growth while examining problems such as unemployment and inflation and the policies enacted to address them. The course also builds on and extends the personal finance content and concepts studied in Kindergarten-Grade 8 in mathematics in Texas. It is an integrative course that applies the same economic way of thinking developed to making choices about how to allocate scarce resources in an economy to how to make them at the personal level. The course requires that students demonstrate critical thinking by exploring how to invest in themselves with education and skill development, earn income, and budget for spending, saving, investing, and protecting. Students will examine their individual responsibility for managing their personal finances and understand the impact on standard of living and long-term financial well-being. Further, students will connect how their financial decision making impacts the greater economy.

(3) This course was created in response to Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.025(b-22), satisfies the high school requirement, and meets the two-thirds of instructional time in personal financial literacy and one-third of instructional time in economics. In addition, the course addresses new financial challenges of modern economy.

(4) State and federal laws mandate a variety of celebrations and observances, including Celebrate Freedom Week.

(A) Each social studies class shall include, during Celebrate Freedom Week as provided under TEC, §29.907, or during another full school week as determined by the board of trustees of a school district, appropriate instruction concerning the intent, meaning, and importance of the Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Constitution, including the Bill of Rights, in their historical contexts. The study of the Declaration of Independence must include the study of the relationship of the ideas expressed in that document to subsequent American history, including the relationship of its ideas to the rich diversity of our people as a nation of immigrants, the American Revolution, the formulation of the U.S. Constitution, and the abolitionist movement, which led to the Emancipation Proclamation and the women's suffrage movement.

(B) Each school district shall require that, during Celebrate Freedom Week or other week of instruction prescribed under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph, students in Grades 3-12 study and recite the following text: "We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness--That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed."

(5) Students identify and discuss how the actions of U.S. citizens and the local, state, and federal governments have either met or failed to meet the ideals espoused in the founding documents.

(6) Students understand that a constitutional republic is a representative form of government whose representatives derive their authority from the consent of the governed, serve for an established tenure, and are sworn to uphold the constitution.

(7) Statements that contain the word "including " reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as " are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Economics. The student understands the fundamental concepts of economics. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how the concepts of scarcity, choice, and opportunity costs apply to decision making;

(B) interpret a production-possibilities curve and apply the concepts of scarcity, choice, and opportunity costs;

(C) explain how the production-possibilities curve represents cost-benefit decision making;

(D) use the circular flow model to identify how households, firms, and governments interact in both resource markets and product markets;

(E) evaluate how prices and quantities are determined through supply and demand;

(F) interpret a supply-and-demand graph, including equilibrium point, surpluses, and shortages;

(G) analyze how non-price determinants of supply and demand affect equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity; and

(H) explain how supply and demand exist in both resource and product markets.

(2) Economics. The student understands that macroeconomic issues and policies have an impact on personal finance. The student is expected to:

(A) identify types of progressive and regressive taxes at the local, state, and national levels and explain the economic importance of each;

(B) examine and evaluate the reasons for federal income taxation, Social Security taxation, Medicaid taxation, and Medicare taxation, including earnings limitations as applicable;

(C) explain how all economic systems are mixed and exist on a spectrum between pure market and pure command systems;

(D) explain the benefits of the U.S. free enterprise system, including private property and incentives;

(E) discuss the importance of full employment, price stability, and economic growth in achieving the macroeconomic goals of the United States;

(F) explain the impact of fiscal policies enacted by government decisions on interest rates, inflation, and unemployment; and

(G) explain the impact of monetary policies enacted by the Federal Reserve System on interest rates, inflation, and unemployment.

(3) Personal financial literacy--investing in education and skills. The student recognizes the costs and benefits of various types of postsecondary education and training throughout the student's lifetime. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the relationship between education and training and earnings throughout the student's lifetime;

(B) investigate and evaluate the costs and benefits of various postsecondary education and training institutions;

(C) describe the process for completing grant and scholarship applications, including the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA®) provided by the U.S. Department of Education or the Texas Application for State Financial Aid (TASFA);

(D) analyze and compare various student grant and loan options, including private and federal loans;

(E) interpret data from a student aid report; and

(F) research and align interests and skills with potential careers and postsecondary education to assure a life strategy that will produce employment the student enjoys with a desired standard of living.

(4) Personal financial literacy--earning. The student recognizes that a variety of factors influence income. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources of income, including wages and salaries, profits, interest, rent, dividends, and capital gains;

(B) compare common employee benefits such as health insurance, sick leave, retirement plans, and other tax-favored health and dependent care plans;

(C) differentiate among and calculate gross, net, and taxable income; and

(D) identify factors such as educational attainment and market demand for careers that can influence the labor market and affect income.

(5) Personal financial literacy--entrepreneurship. The student discusses the opportunities available for entrepreneurship. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the role of the entrepreneur in creating businesses;

(B) explain how an entrepreneur earns income, including through profits from the creation or ownership of businesses;

(C) compare total compensation and additional benefits and obligations as a self-employed or independent contractor with total compensation as an employee;

(D) discuss the resources available for entrepreneurship and the federal, state, and local agencies available to assist with or provide grants for the creation of a small business;

(E) analyze the risks and rewards of entrepreneurship, including those associated with starting a new business, owning a small business, and purchasing a franchise; and

(F) explain the characteristics of business organization such as sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations.

(6) Personal financial literacy--spending. The student understands how to set personal spending goals. The student is expected to:

(A) develop financial goals for the short, medium, and long term that are specific, measurable, attainable, realistic, and time based;

(B) analyze the opportunity costs of spending and saving in recognizing short-, medium-, and long-term goals;

(C) identify and prioritize types of purchases and charitable giving;

(D) evaluate various forms of financial exchange such as cash, checks, credit cards, debit cards, mobile payment applications, and electronic transfers;

(E) discuss the importance of tracking income and expenses to reconcile financial records;

(F) evaluate the impact of unplanned spending;

(G) analyze costs and benefits of owning versus renting housing; and

(H) analyze costs and benefits of owning versus leasing a vehicle.

(7) Personal financial literacy--credit and debt. The student understands the costs and benefits of borrowing. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast sources of credit such as banks, merchants, peer-to-peer, payday loans, and title loans;

(B) identify the characteristics and dangers of predatory lending practices;

(C) compare and contrast types of credit, including revolving and installment credit, and collateralized loans versus unsecured credit;

(D) discuss how character, capacity, and collateral can adversely or positively impact an individual's credit rating and the ability to obtain credit;

(E) explain how to access and interpret a sample credit report and score;

(F) describe the importance of monitoring credit reports regularly and addressing errors;

(G) discuss how factors such as medical expenses, job loss, divorce, or a failed business could lead to bankruptcy; and

(H) determine and discuss if and when to use credit by considering the truth in lending disclosures.

(8) Personal financial literacy--saving and investing. The student understands the importance of saving and investing in creating wealth and building assets. The student is expected to:

(A) determine the exponential growth benefits of starting early to invest with continuous contributions;

(B) determine the number of years it will take for savings to double in value by using the rule of 72;

(C) evaluate the costs and benefits of various savings options such as bank savings accounts, certificates of deposit, and money market mutual funds;

(D) evaluate risk and return of various investment options, including stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and exchange-traded funds (ETFs);

(E) evaluate the relative benefits of pre-tax and post-tax investing;

(F) develop a short-term saving strategy to achieve a goal such as establishing and maintaining an emergency fund;

(G) develop an intermediate-term saving and investing strategy to achieve a goal such as accumulating a down payment on a home or vehicle; and

(H) develop a long-term investing strategy to achieve a goal such as a financially secure retirement.

(9) Personal financial literacy--protecting and insuring. The student recognizes financial risks faced by individuals and families and identifies strategies for handling these risks to avoid potential loss of assets and earning potential. The student is expected to:

(A) apply risk management strategies, including avoiding, reducing, retaining, and transferring risk;

(B) define insurance terminology, including premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and policy limits;

(C) explain the costs and benefits of different types and sources of health insurance;

(D) explain the costs and benefits of disability and long-term care insurance;

(E) explain the costs and benefits of life insurance, including term insurance and whole life insurance;

(F) explain the costs and benefits of property insurance, including homeowner's and renter's insurance;

(G) explain the costs and benefits of automobile insurance and factors that impact the price of insurance, including the type of vehicle, age and sex of driver, driving record, deductible, and geographic location;

(H) identify ways to reduce risk of identity theft and protect personal information;

(I) describe and identify examples of common schemes and scams such as Ponzi schemes and pyramid, phishing, check cashing, and home renovation scams;

(J) explain how consumer protection agencies protect consumers against fraud; and

(K) explain the importance of estate planning, including guardianship of minor children, wills, beneficiary designation, power of attorney, living will, and medical directives.

(10) Personal financial literacy skills. The student understands how to set personal financial goals. The student is expected to:

(A) use problem-solving and decision-making processes to identify a problem, gather information, list and consider options, consider advantages and disadvantages, choose and implement a solution, and evaluate the effectiveness of the solution;

(B) develop a budget that addresses short-, medium-, and long-term financial goals; and

(C) explain why earning income, spending, credit, debt, saving and investing, and protecting and insuring are important parts of a comprehensive financial plan and develop a plan that incorporates these components.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201637

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 115. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR HEALTH EDUCATION

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes the repeal of §§115.1-115.7, 115.21-115.23, and 115.31-115.33, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for health education. The proposed repeals would remove the TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 12 health education and related implementation language that will be superseded by 19 TAC §§115.11-115.17, 115.25-115.28, and 115.37-115.40 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: In accordance with statutory requirements that the SBOE by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum, the SBOE follows a board-approved cycle to review and revise the essential knowledge and skills for each subject.

At the November 2020 SBOE meeting, the board approved for second reading and final adoption proposed new §§115.11-115.17, 115.25-115.28, and 115.37-115.40 to be implemented beginning in the 2022-2023 school year.

The proposed repeals would remove sections that will be superseded by §§115.11-115.17, 115.25-115.28, and 115.37-115.40 effective August 1, 2022.

The SBOE approved the proposed repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect, there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would repeal existing regulations by removing health education TEKS that will be superseded by a newly adopted set of TEKS.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not expand or limit an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be removing the TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 12 health education and related implementation language that will be superseded by §§115.11-115.17, 115.25-115.28, and 115.37-115.40 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§115.1 - 115.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§115.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Education, Elementary.

§115.2.Health Education, Kindergarten.

§115.3.Health Education, Grade 1.

§115.4.Health Education, Grade 2.

§115.5.Health Education, Grade 3.

§115.6.Health Education, Grade 4.

§115.7.Health Education, Grade 5.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201626

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§115.21 - 115.23

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§115.21.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Education, Middle School.

§115.22.Health Education, Grade 6.

§115.23.Health Education, Grades 7-8.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201628

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§115.31 - 115.33

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§115.31.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Health Education, High School.

§115.32.Health 1, Grades 9-10 (One-Half Credit).

§115.33.Advanced Health, Grades 11-12 (One-Half Credit).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201629

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 116. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes the repeal of §§116.1-116.7, 116.21-116.24, and 116.51-116.56, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for physical education. The proposed repeals would remove the TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 12 physical education and related implementation language that will be superseded by 19 TAC §§116.11-116.17, 116.25-116.28, and 116.61-116.64 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: In accordance with statutory requirements that the SBOE by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum, the SBOE follows a board-approved cycle to review and revise the essential knowledge and skills for each subject.

At the November 2020 SBOE meeting, the board approved for second reading and final adoption proposed new §§116.11-116.17, 116.25-116.28, and 116.61-116.64 to be implemented beginning in the 2022-2023 school year.

The proposed repeals would remove sections that will be superseded by §§116.11-116.17, 116.25-116.28, and 116.61-116.64 effective August 1, 2022.

The SBOE approved the proposed repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect, there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would repeal existing regulations by removing the physical education TEKS that will be superseded by a newly adopted set of TEKS.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not expand or limit an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be removing the TEKS for Kindergarten-Grade 12 physical education and related implementation language that will be superseded by §§116.11-116.17, 116.25-116.28, and 116.61-116.64 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§116.1 - 116.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§116.1.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Physical Education, Elementary.

§116.2.Physical Education, Kindergarten.

§116.3.Physical Education, Grade 1.

§116.4.Physical Education, Grade 2.

§116.5.Physical Education, Grade 3.

§116.6.Physical Education, Grade 4.

§116.7.Physical Education, Grade 5.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201621

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§116.21 - 116.24

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§116.21.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Physical Education, Middle School.

§116.22.Physical Education, Grade 6.

§116.23.Physical Education, Grade 7.

§116.24.Physical Education, Grade 8.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201622

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§116.51 - 116.56

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§116.51.Implementation of Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Physical Education, High School.

§116.52.Foundations of Personal Fitness (One-Half Credit).

§116.53.Adventure/Outdoor Education (One-Half Credit).

§116.54.Aerobic Activities (One-Half Credit).

§116.55.Individual Sports (One-Half Credit).

§116.56.Team Sports (One-Half Credit).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201624

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 126. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§126.1-126.3, 126.8-126.10, and 126.17-126.19, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for technology applications. The proposed new rules would update the technology applications standards to ensure the standards remain current.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: In accordance with statutory requirements that the SBOE identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum, the SBOE follows a board-approved cycle to review and revise the essential knowledge and skills for each subject. Technology applications is part of the required curriculum for Kindergarten-Grade 8 only. In 2020, the SBOE approved the consolidation of the high school technology applications courses into the career and technical education (CTE) TEKS.

At the January 2021 meeting, SBOE members were asked to designate content advisors for the review and revision of the technology applications TEKS. Applications to serve on the TEKS review work groups were posted on the Texas Education Agency (TEA) website in March 2021. In April 2021, TEA distributed a survey to collect information from educators regarding the review and revision of the technology applications TEKS. TEA staff provided applications for the technology applications review work groups to SBOE members on a monthly basis from May-September 2021.

Technology applications TEKS review content advisor and work group meetings convened in 2021 were conducted virtually. In July 2021, technology applications TEKS review content advisors met virtually to develop consensus recommendations regarding revisions to the technology applications TEKS and met with representatives from Work Group A to discuss their recommendations. Also in July 2021, Work Group A convened to discuss the consensus recommendations, review survey results, and develop recommendations for how subsequent technology applications TEKS review work groups could address the feedback received. Work Group B was convened in September 2021 and was charged with developing recommendations for a new strand framework. The work group recommended six new strands and reorganized the current technology applications TEKS into the proposed new strands. Work Group C was convened in October 2021 to draft recommendations for student expectations for two of the strands in the proposed new strand framework. Work Group D was convened at the end of October 2021 to draft recommendations for the remaining four proposed new strands. The work group recommended eliminating one of the strands, which would reduce the original proposed strand framework to a total of five strands. Work Group E was convened for a virtual meeting in December 2021 to review the vertical alignment of the strands across all grade levels and to ensure the proposed new standards could be reasonably taught in an academic year. In December 2021, content advisors were sent the draft recommendations for review. A discussion item on the draft recommendations was presented to the board at the January 2022 SBOE meeting.

Proposed new §§126.1-126.3, 126.8-126.10, and 126.17-126.19 would adopt updated technology applications standards to ensure the standards remain current.

The SBOE approved the proposed new sections for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect (2022-2026), there are no fiscal implications to the state. There will be implications for TEA if the state develops professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revised TEKS. Any professional development that is created would be based on whether TEA received an appropriation for professional development in the next biennium.

There may be fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the proposed new TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: TEA staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would create new regulations by adopting new technology applications TEKS required to be offered by school districts and charter schools.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not expand, limit, or repeal an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§126.1 - 126.3, 126.8 - 126.10

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(c-3), which requires the SBOE to include coding, computer programming, computational thinking, and cybersecurity in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for technology applications for Kindergarten-Grade 8. The statute also requires that, as needed, the SBOE review and revise the technology applications TEKS every five years to ensure that the standards are relevant to student education and align current or emerging professions; and TEC, §28.002(z), which requires the SBOE to adopt rules to require school districts to incorporate instruction in digital citizenship, including information regarding the potential criminal consequences of cyberbullying, into the district's curriculum.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a), (c), (c-3), and (z).

§126.1.Technology Applications, Kindergarten, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify a problem or task such as making a sandwich and break it down (decompose) into smaller pieces;

(B) identify simple patterns and make predictions based on the patterns; and

(C) identify algorithms (step-by-step instructions) using a sequential process such as first, next, then, and last.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student, with guidance from an educator, applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to create a sequence of code with or without technology such as solving a maze using drag-and-drop programming or creating step-by-step directions for student movement to a specific location.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) practice personal skills, including following directions, needed to successfully implement design processes; and

(B) use a design process with components such as asking questions, brainstorming, or storyboarding to identify and solve authentic problems with adult assistance.

(4) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student defines data and explains how data can be found and collected. The student is expected to:

(A) communicate an understanding that data is information collected about people, events, or objects such as computer searches and weather patterns; and

(B) communicate with adult assistance the idea that digital devices can search for and retrieve information.

(5) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student identifies appropriate ways to communicate in various digital environments. The student is expected to identify and demonstrate responsible behavior within a digital environment.

(6) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate acceptable use of digital resources and devices as outlined in local policies or acceptable use policy (AUP); and

(B) communicate an understanding that all digital content has owners.

(7) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways to keep a user account safe, including not sharing login information and logging off accounts and devices; and

(B) identify and discuss what information is safe to share online such as hobbies and likes and dislikes and what information is unsafe such as identifying information.

(8) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) use a variety of applications, devices, and online learning environments to engage with content;

(B) identify basic computer hardware, including a variety of input and output devices, and software using accurate terminology;

(C) perform software application functions such as opening an application and modifying, printing, and saving digital artifacts using a variety of developmentally appropriate digital tools and resources;

(D) practice ergonomically correct keyboarding techniques and developmentally appropriate hand and body positions; and

(E) identify, locate, and practice using keys on the keyboard, including letters, numbers, and special keys such as space bar and backspace.

§126.2.Technology Applications, Grade 1, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and discuss a problem or task and break down (decompose) the solution into sequential steps;

(B) identify the simple patterns found in the solutions to everyday problems or tasks; and

(C) create a simple algorithm (step-by-step instructions) for an everyday task.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student, with guidance from an educator, applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to create a sequence of code that solves a simple problem with or without technology.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) practice personal skills and behaviors, including following directions and mental agility, needed to implement a design process successfully; and

(B) use a design process with components such as asking questions, brainstorming, or storyboarding to identify and solve authentic problems with adult assistance.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student understands that technology is dynamic and impacts different communities. The student is expected to identify examples of how technology has impacted different communities.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student defines data and explains how data can be found and collected. The student is expected to:

(A) explore and collect many types of data such as preferences or daily routines of people, events, or objects; and

(B) conduct a basic search using provided keywords and digital sources with adult assistance.

(6) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student identifies appropriate ways to communicate in various digital environments. The student is expected to describe and demonstrate respectful behavior within a digital environment.

(7) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explain and demonstrate the importance of acceptable use of digital resources and devices as outlined in local policies or acceptable use policy (AUP); and

(B) communicate an understanding that all digital content has owners and explain the importance of respecting others' belongings as they apply to digital content and information.

(8) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) identify ways to keep a user account safe, including not sharing login information and logging off accounts and devices;

(B) identify and discuss what information is safe to share online such as hobbies and likes and dislikes and what information is unsafe such as identifying information; and

(C) discuss and define cyberbullying with teacher support and guidance.

(9) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) select and use a variety of applications, devices, and online learning environments to create an original product;

(B) describe basic computer hardware, including a variety of input and output devices, and software using accurate terminology;

(C) perform software application functions such as file management, collaboration, and the creation and revision of digital artifacts using a variety of developmentally appropriate digital tools and resources;

(D) practice ergonomically correct keyboarding techniques and developmentally appropriate hand and body positions; and

(E) identify, locate, and practice using keys on the keyboard, including upper- and lower-case letters, numbers, and special keys such as space bar, shift, and backspace.

§126.3.Technology Applications, Grade 2, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and communicate a problem or task and break down (decompose) multiple solutions into sequential steps;

(B) identify complex patterns and make predictions based on the pattern;

(C) analyze a plan with adult assistance that outlines the steps needed to complete a task; and

(D) create and troubleshoot simple algorithms (step-by-step instructions) that include conditionals such as if-then statements as they apply to an everyday task.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student, with guidance from an educator, applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explore what a variable is in a sequence of code; and

(B) use a design process to create a sequence of code that includes loops to solve a simple problem with or without technology.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate personal skills and behaviors, including effective communication, following directions, and mental agility, needed to implement a design process successfully; and

(B) apply a design process with components such as testing and reflecting to create new and useful solutions to identify and solve for authentic problems.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates an understanding that technology is dynamic and impacts different communities. The student is expected to identify and analyze how technology impacts different communities.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student defines data and explains how data can be found and collected. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and collect non-numerical data, such as weather patterns, preferred reading genres, and holidays; and

(B) conduct a basic search independently using provided keywords and digital sources.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student communicates data through the use of digital tools. The student is expected to use a digital tool to individually or collaboratively create and communicate data visualizations such as pictographs and bar graphs.

(7) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student identifies appropriate ways to communicate in various digital environments. The student is expected to participate in digital environments to develop responsible and respectful interactions.

(8) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) explain and demonstrate the importance of acceptable use of digital resources and devices as outlined in local policies or acceptable use policy (AUP); and

(B) communicate an understanding that all digital content has owners and explain the importance of respecting others' belongings as they apply to digital content and information.

(9) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate account safety, including creating a strong password and logging off accounts and devices;

(B) compare and contrast private and public information and discuss what is safe to be shared online and with whom; and

(C) discuss cyberbullying and identify examples.

(10) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student demonstrates knowledge and appropriate use of technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) select and use a variety of applications, devices, and online learning environments to create and share content;

(B) identify, compare, and describe the function of basic computer hardware, including a variety of input and output devices, and software applications using accurate terminology;

(C) operate a variety of developmentally appropriate digital tools and resources to perform software application functions such as reviewing digital artifacts and designing solutions to problems;

(D) practice ergonomically correct keyboarding techniques and developmentally appropriate hand and body positions; and

(E) identify, locate, and practice using keys on the keyboard, including secondary actions of different keys such as "@," "#," "$," and "?".

§126.8.Technology Applications, Grade 3, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose story problems into smaller, manageable subproblems and identify a solution to the problems;

(B) identify simple and complex patterns in story problems;

(C) develop a plan collaboratively and document a plan that outlines specific steps taken to complete a project; and

(D) debug simple algorithms (set of procedures) by identifying and removing errors.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) use variables within a program to store data; and

(B) use a design process to create programs that include sequences, loops, and conditionals to express ideas or address a problem.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of and demonstrate personal skills and behaviors, including metacognition, effective communication, following directions, and mental agility, needed to implement the design process successfully; and

(B) apply an appropriate design process using components such as peer and teacher feedback to create new and useful solutions to authentic problems.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates an understanding that technology is dynamic and impacts different communities. The student is expected to define emerging technologies.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses digital strategies to collect and identify data. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and collect numerical data such as the price of goods or temperature; and

(B) use various search strategies with adult assistance.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses data to answer questions. The student is expected to analyze data in graphs to identify and discuss trends and inferences.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student communicates data through the use of digital tools to inform an audience. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate and publish results to inform an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) define digital footprint;

(B) define digital etiquette; and

(C) define digital collaboration.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate adherence to local acceptable use policy (AUP) that reflects positive social behavior in the digital environment;

(B) communicate the purpose of copyright law and identify appropriate and inappropriate uses of digital content and information; and

(C) identify the required elements of citations for digital forms of media.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate account safety, including creating a strong password and logging off accounts and devices;

(B) describe ways to employ safe practices such as protecting digital identity and avoid online dangers such as accessing unsafe websites or clicking on suspicious links; and

(C) discuss cyberbullying and explain how to respond to cyberbullying.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student engages with technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast applications such as word processor, spreadsheet, and presentation tools for relevance to an assigned task; and

(B) perform software application functions such as inserting or deleting text, inserting images, and formatting page layout and margins.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student selects appropriate methods or techniques for an assigned task and identifies and solves simple hardware and software problems using common troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) communicate an understanding of terminology related to operating systems and network systems such as internet, intranet, wireless network, short-range wireless technology, and learning management systems;

(B) identify where and how to save files such as using appropriate naming conventions and effective file management strategies;

(C) demonstrate proper touch keyboarding techniques with accuracy and ergonomic strategies such as correct hand and body positions;

(D) identify and practice using keyboard or other input device shortcuts for actions such as copy, paste, undo, or closing windows; and

(E) identify minor technical problems with hardware and software and solve the issues with assistance.

§126.9.Technology Applications, Grade 4, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose story problems into smaller, manageable subproblems and discuss and document various solutions to the problems;

(B) identify patterns in story problems and make predictions based on the pattern;

(C) communicate design plans and solutions using a variety of options; and

(D) debug algorithms (set of procedures) by identifying and removing errors.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) use variables within a program to modify data; and

(B) use a design process to create programs that include sequences, loops, and conditionals to express ideas or address a problem.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of and demonstrate personal skills and behaviors, including problem solving and questioning, effective communication, following directions, mental agility, and metacognition, that are needed to implement a design process successfully; and

(B) apply an appropriate design process that includes components to improve processes and refine original products for authentic problems.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates an understanding that technology is dynamic and impacts different communities. The student is expected to identify examples of emerging technologies.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses digital strategies to collect and identify data. The student is expected to:

(A) classify numerical and non-numerical data; and

(B) identify and collect data by using various search strategies, including two or more keywords within specific parameters.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses data to answer questions. The student is expected to use digital tools to transform and make inferences about data to answer a question.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student communicates data through the use of digital tools to inform an audience. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate results of an inquiry to inform an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) describe how information retained online creates a permanent digital footprint;

(B) describe appropriate digital etiquette for various forms of digital communication such as text, email, and online chat; and

(C) demonstrate appropriate digital etiquette for various forms of digital collaboration such as shared documents, video conferencing, and other platforms.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate adherence to local acceptable use policy (AUP) and explain the importance of responsible and ethical technology use;

(B) describe the rights and responsibilities of a creator, define copyright law, and explain how copyright law applies to creative work; and

(C) create citations for digital forms of media with assistance.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate account safety, including creating a strong password and logging off devices, and explain the importance of these practices;

(B) identify and discuss types of data collection tools such as cookies, pop-ups, smart devices, and unsecured networks and explain why it is important to maintain digital privacy; and

(C) discuss and explain how to respond to cyberbullying, including advocating for self and others.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student engages with technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate and choose applications for relevance to an assigned task; and

(B) perform software application functions such as outline options, bulleting, and numbering lists, and perform editing functions such as finding and replacing.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student selects appropriate methods or techniques for an assigned task and identifies and solves simple hardware and software problems using common troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) communicate an understanding of terminology related to virtual systems such as video conferencing, augmented reality, and virtual reality environments;

(B) evaluate where and how to save, including the use of appropriate naming conventions and effective file management strategies and folder structures;

(C) demonstrate proper touch keyboarding techniques with speed and accuracy and ergonomic strategies such as correct hand and body positions;

(D) identify and practice using cross-curricular symbols or other input device shortcuts on a keyboard; and

(E) use troubleshooting strategies to solve minor technical problems with hardware and software such as restarting software or rebooting hardware.

§126.10.Technology Applications, Grade 5, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose a real-world problem into smaller, manageable subproblems using graphic organizers such as learning maps, concept maps, or other representations of data;

(B) identify patterns in real-world problems and make predictions based on the pattern;

(C) design and create an outline collaboratively that documents a problem, possible solutions, and an expected timeline for the development of a coded solution; and

(D) compare multiple algorithms for the same task and determine which algorithm is the most appropriate for that task.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) use variables within a program to store and modify data;

(B) use a design process to create block-based programs that include sequences, loops, conditionals, and events to solve an everyday problem; and

(C) analyze a code and how the code may be reused to develop new or improved programs.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process to solve authentic problems for a local or global audience, using a variety of technologies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of and demonstrate personal skills and behaviors, including persistence, effective communication, following directions, mental agility, metacognition, problem solving and questioning, that are needed to implement a design process successfully; and

(B) apply an appropriate design process that includes components to generate multiple solutions for an authentic problem and develop original products.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates an understanding that technology is dynamic and impacts different communities. The student is expected to predict how emerging technologies may impact different communities.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses digital strategies to collect and identify data. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and collect quantitative and qualitative data with digital tools; and

(B) identify keyword(s), Boolean operators, and limiters within provided search strategies.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses data to answer questions. The student is expected to use digital tools to analyze and transform data and make inferences to answer questions.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student communicates data through the use of digital tools to inform an audience. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate and display data using appropriate visualization to inform an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the components of a digital footprint such as online activity, game use, or social media platforms;

(B) describe appropriate digital etiquette for addressing different audiences such as peers, teachers, and other adults; and

(C) apply appropriate digital etiquette for collaborating with different audiences such as peers, teachers, and other adults.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate adherence to local acceptable use policy (AUP) and explain the importance of responsible and ethical technology use;

(B) describe the purpose of copyright law and the possible consequences for inappropriate use of digital content; and

(C) create citations for digital forms of media with assistance.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss cybersecurity strategies such as using a secured internet connection to protect digital information;

(B) discuss how data collection technology is used to track online navigation and identify strategies to maintain digital privacy and security; and

(C) discuss and identify how interactions can escalate online and explain ways to stand up to cyberbullying, including advocating for self and others.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student engages with technology systems, concepts, and operations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify file types for text, graphics, and multimedia files; and

(B) perform software application functions, including inserting or deleting text and images and formatting tools or options.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student selects appropriate methods or techniques for an assigned task and identifies and solves simple hardware and software problems using common troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and evaluate operating systems, learning management systems, virtual systems, and network systems such as internet, intranet, wireless network, and short-range wireless technology;

(B) organize files using appropriate naming conventions and folder structures;

(C) demonstrate proper touch keyboarding techniques with increasing speed and accuracy and ergonomic strategies such as correct hand and body positions;

(D) demonstrate keyboard or other input device shortcuts with fluency; and

(E) use help sources to research application features and solve software issues.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201635

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§126.17 - 126.19

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(c-3), which requires the SBOE to include coding, computer programming, computational thinking, and cybersecurity in the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for technology applications for Kindergarten-Grade 8. The statute also requires that, as needed, the SBOE review and revise the technology applications TEKS every five years to ensure that the standards are relevant to student education and align current or emerging professions; and TEC, §28.002(z), which requires the SBOE to adopt rules to require school districts to incorporate instruction in digital citizenship, including information regarding the potential criminal consequences of cyberbullying, into the district's curriculum.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a), (c), (c-3), and (z).

§126.17.Technology Applications, Grade 6, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose real-world problems into structured parts by using visual representation;

(B) analyze the patterns and sequences found in visual representations such as learning maps, concept maps, or other representations of data;

(C) define abstraction and distinguish between generalized information and specific information in the context of solving a problem or completing a task;

(D) design a plan collaboratively using visual representation to document a problem, possible solutions, and an expected timeline for the development of a coded solution;

(E) analyze different techniques used in debugging and apply them to an algorithm; and

(F) analyze the benefits of using iteration (code and sequence repetition) in algorithms.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) define and label variables that relate to their programming or algorithm; and

(B) use a design process to create block-based and text-based programs that include sequences, loops, conditionals, and events to solve an everyday problem.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process and creative thinking to develop and evaluate solutions, considering a variety of local and global perspectives. The student is expected to:

(A) resolve challenges in design processes independently using goal setting and personal character traits such as demonstrating courage and confidence;

(B) discuss and implement a design process using digital tools to compare, contrast, and evaluate student-generated outcomes; and

(C) identify how the design process is used in various industries.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates a thorough understanding of the role of technology throughout history and its impact on societies. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss how changes in technology throughout history have impacted various areas of study;

(B) discuss how global trends impact the development of technology; and

(C) transfer current knowledge to the learning of newly encountered technologies.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses advanced digital strategies to collect and represent data. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate how data can be represented in Boolean expression; and

(B) discuss and use advanced search strategies, including keywords, Boolean operators, and limiters.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses digital tools to transform data, make inferences, and predictions. The student is expected to use digital tools to transform data in order to identify and discuss trends and make inferences.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student creates digital products to communicate data to an audience for an intended purpose. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate and display data from a product or process to inform an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the impact of a digital footprint;

(B) create formal and informal digital communications using appropriate digital etiquette; and

(C) collaborate on digital platforms such as recording a video conference presentation using appropriate formal and informal digital etiquette.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) adhere to local acceptable use policy (AUP) and practice safe, ethical, and positive online behaviors;

(B) discuss and define intellectual property and associated terms, including copyright law, permission, fair use, creative commons, open source, and public domain;

(C) create citations and cite sources for a variety of digital forms of intellectual property; and

(D) describe how information can be exaggerated or misrepresented online.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) identify real-world cybersecurity problems such as phishing, malware, password attacks, identity theft, and hacking; and

(B) identify various methods of cyberbullying such as harassment, impersonation, and cyberstalking.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student evaluates and selects appropriate methods or techniques for an independent project and identifies and solves common hardware and software problems using troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to create and design files in various formats such as text, graphics, video, and audio files.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student leverages technology systems, concepts, and operations to produce digital artifacts. The student is expected to:

(A) apply appropriate technology terminology such as cloud applications, input, output, and basic programming;

(B) identify effective file management strategies such as file naming conventions, local and remote locations, backup, hierarchy, folder structure, file conversion, tags, and emerging digital organizational strategies;

(C) select and use the appropriate platform and tools to complete a specific task or project;

(D) demonstrate improvement in speed and accuracy as measured by words per minute when applying correct keyboarding techniques;

(E) select and use appropriate shortcuts within applications;

(F) use help sources to research application features and solve software issues;

(G) identify types of local and remote data storage such as cloud architecture or local server; and

(H) use productivity tools found in spread sheet, word processing, and publication applications to create digital artifacts such as reports, graphs, and charts.

§126.18.Technology Applications, Grade 7, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose real-world problems into structured parts using flowcharts;

(B) analyze the patterns and sequences found in flowcharts;

(C) identify abstraction and analyze how an algorithm the student created can be generalized to solve additional problems;

(D) design a plan collaboratively using flowcharts to document a problem, possible solutions, and an expected timeline for the development of a coded solution;

(E) analyze different techniques used in debugging and apply them to an algorithm; and

(F) analyze the benefits of using iteration (code and sequence repetition) in algorithms.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) manipulate and rename variables and describe different data types; and

(B) use a software design process to create text-based programs with nested loops that address different subproblems within a real-world context.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process and creative thinking to develop and evaluate solutions, considering a variety of local and global perspectives. The student is expected to:

(A) resolve challenges in design processes independently using goal setting and personal character traits such as demonstrating responsibility and advocating for self appropriately;

(B) discuss and implement a design process that includes planning and selecting digital tools to develop and refine a prototype or model through trial and error; and

(C) identify how the design process is used in various industries.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates a thorough understanding of the role of technology throughout history and its impact on societies. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how changes in technology throughout history have impacted various areas of study;

(B) explain how global trends impact the development of technology; and

(C) transfer current knowledge to the learning of newly encountered technologies.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses advanced digital strategies to collect and represent data. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate how data can be represented in a binary number systems; and

(B) evaluate advanced search strategies, including keywords, Boolean operators, and limiters.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses digital tools to transform data, make inferences, and predictions. The student is expected to use digital tools in order to transform data to analyze trends and make inferences and predictions.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student creates digital products to communicate data to an audience for an intended purpose. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate and display data from a product or process to inform or persuade an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) classify actions as having a positive or negative effect on a digital footprint;

(B) create and revise formal and informal communications using a feedback process and appropriate digital etiquette; and

(C) collaborate on digital platforms such as recording a video conference presentation using appropriate formal and informal digital etiquette.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) adhere to local acceptable use policy (AUP) and practice and model safe, ethical, and positive online behaviors;

(B) explain the importance of intellectual property laws, including the benefits of protection for content owners, and the consequences of violating these laws;

(C) create citations and cite sources for a variety of digital forms of intellectual property; and

(D) evaluate how various types of media, including social media, and technology can be used to exaggerate and misrepresent information.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) describe and model ways to protect oneself from real-world cybersecurity attacks; and

(B) analyze the negative impacts of cyberbullying on the victim and the bully.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student evaluates and selects appropriate methods or techniques for an independent project and identifies and solves common hardware and software problems using troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to choose a variety of digital tools to create, share, and communicate digital artifacts.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student leverages technology systems, concepts, and operations to produce digital artifacts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate proficiency in the appropriate use of technology terminology in projects through team collaboration and communication;

(B) demonstrate effective file management strategies such as file naming conventions, local and remote locations, backup, hierarchy, folder structure, file conversion, tags, and emerging digital organizational strategies with assistance;

(C) select and use appropriate platform and tools, including selecting and using software or hardware for a defined task;

(D) demonstrate improvement in speed and accuracy as measured by words per minute when applying correct keyboarding techniques;

(E) select and use appropriate shortcuts within applications;

(F) research and test potential solutions to solve hardware and software problems;

(G) use a variety of types of local and remote data storage to store or share data such as cloud architecture or local server; and

(H) select and use productivity tools found in spread sheet, word processing, and publication applications to create digital artifacts such as reports, graphs, and charts with increasing complexity.

§126.19.Technology Applications, Grade 8, Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) Introduction.

(1) Technology includes data communication, data processing, and the devices used for these tasks locally and across networks. Learning to apply these technologies motivates students to develop critical-thinking skills, higher-order thinking, and innovative problem solving. Technology applications incorporates the study of digital tools, devices, communication, and programming to empower students to apply current and emerging technologies in their careers, their education, and beyond.

(2) The technology applications Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) consist of five strands that prepare students to be literate in technology applications by Grade 8: computational thinking; creativity and innovation; data literacy, management, and representation; digital citizenship; and practical technology concepts. Communication and collaboration skills are embedded across the strands.

(A) Computational thinking. Students break down the problem-solving process into four steps: decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms.

(B) Creativity and innovation. Students use innovative design processes to develop solutions to problems. Students plan a solution, create the solution, test the solution, iterate, and debug the solution as needed, and implement a completely new and innovative product.

(C) Data literacy, management, and representation. Students collect, organize, manage, analyze, and publish various types of data for an audience.

(D) Digital citizenship. Students practice the ethical and effective application of technology and develop an understanding of cybersecurity and the impact of a digital footprint to become safe, productive, and respectful digital citizens.

(E) Practical technology concepts. Students build their knowledge of software applications and hardware focusing on keyboarding and use of applications and tools. Students also build their knowledge and use of technology systems, including integrating the use of multiple applications.

(3) The technology applications TEKS can be integrated into all content areas and can support stand-alone courses. Districts have the flexibility of offering technology applications in a variety of settings, including through a stand-alone course or by integrating the technology applications standards in the essential knowledge and skills for one or more courses or subject areas.

(4) Statements containing the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Computational thinking--foundations. The student explores the core concepts of computational thinking, a set of problem-solving processes that involve decomposition, pattern recognition, abstraction, and algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) decompose real-world problems into structured parts using pseudocode;

(B) analyze the patterns and sequences found in pseudocode and identify its variables;

(C) practice abstraction by developing a generalized algorithm that can solve different types of problems;

(D) design a plan collaboratively using pseudocode to document a problem, possible solutions, and an expected timeline for the development of a coded solution;

(E) develop, compare, and improve algorithms for a specific task to solve a problem; and

(F) analyze the benefits of using iteration (code and sequence repetition) in algorithms.

(2) Computational thinking--applications. The student applies the fundamentals of computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) construct named variables with multiple data types and perform operations on their values;

(B) use a software design process to create text-based programs with nested loops that address different subproblems within a real-world context; and

(C) modify and implement previously written code to develop improved programs.

(3) Creativity and innovation--innovative design process. The student takes an active role in learning by using a design process and creative thinking to develop and evaluate solutions, considering a variety of local and global perspectives. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate innovation in a design process using goal setting and personal character traits, including demonstrating calculated risk-taking and tolerance;

(B) discuss and implement a design process that includes planning, selecting digital tools to develop, test, and evaluate design limitations, and refining a prototype or model; and

(C) identify how the design process is used in various industries.

(4) Creativity and innovation--emerging technologies. The student demonstrates a thorough understanding of the role of technology throughout history and its impact on societies. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate how changes in technology throughout history have impacted various areas of study;

(B) evaluate and predict how global trends impact the development of technology; and

(C) transfer current knowledge to the learning of newly encountered technologies.

(5) Data literacy, management, and representation--collect data. The student uses advanced digital strategies to collect and represent data. The student is expected to:

(A) compare and contrast data types, including binary, integers, real numbers, Boolean data, and text-based representations; and

(B) apply appropriate search strategies, including keywords, Boolean operators, and limiters, to achieve a specified outcome that includes a variety of file formats.

(6) Data literacy, management, and representation--organize, manage, and analyze data. The student uses digital tools to transform data, make inferences, and predictions. The student is expected to use digital tools in order to transform data, analyze trends, and predict possibilities and develop steps for the creation of an innovative process or product.

(7) Data literacy, management, and representation--communicate and publish results. The student creates digital products to communicate data to an audience for an intended purpose. The student is expected to use digital tools to communicate and publish data from a product or process to persuade an intended audience.

(8) Digital citizenship--social interactions. The student understands different styles of digital communication and that a student's actions online can have a long-term impact. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the importance of managing a digital footprint and how a digital footprint can affect the future;

(B) create and publish a formal digital communication for a global audience using appropriate digital etiquette; and

(C) collaborate and publish for a global audience on digital platforms such as recording and editing videos using appropriate formal and informal digital etiquette.

(9) Digital citizenship--ethics and laws. The student recognizes and practices responsible, legal, and ethical behavior while using digital tools and resources. The student is expected to:

(A) adhere to local acceptable use policy (AUP) and practice and advocate for safe, ethical, and positive online behaviors;

(B) adhere to appropriate intellectual property law when creating digital products;

(C) create citations and cite sources for a variety of digital forms of intellectual property; and

(D) evaluate the bias of digital information sources, including websites.

(10) Digital citizenship--privacy, safety, and security. The student practices safe, legal, and ethical digital behaviors to become a socially responsible digital citizen. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze real-world scenarios to identify cybersecurity threats and propose ways to prevent harm; and

(B) evaluate scenarios or case studies to identify warning signs of a cyberbullying victim such as withdrawal or lack of sleep and predict the outcomes for both the victim and the bully.

(11) Practical technology concepts--processes. The student evaluates and selects appropriate methods or techniques for an independent project and identifies and solves common hardware and software problems using troubleshooting strategies. The student is expected to:

(A) combine various file formats for a specific project or audience; and

(B) share and seek feedback on files in various formats, including text, raster and vector graphics, video, and audio files.

(12) Practical technology concepts--skills and tools. The student leverages technology systems, concepts, and operations to produce digital artifacts. The student is expected to:

(A) integrate use of appropriate technology terminology in scholarly inquiry and dialogue such as classroom discussion and written samples;

(B) implement effective file management strategies independently, including file naming conventions, local and remote locations, backup, hierarchy, folder structure, file conversion, tags, and emerging digital organizational strategies;

(C) select and use appropriate platform and tools, including selecting and using software or hardware to transfer data;

(D) demonstrate improvement in speed and accuracy as measured by words per minute when applying correct keyboarding techniques;

(E) select and use appropriate shortcuts within applications;

(F) apply appropriate troubleshooting techniques and seek technical assistance as needed;

(G) compare types of local and remote data storage such as cloud architecture or local server and select the appropriate type of storage to store and share data; and

(H) select and use productivity tools found in spread sheet, word processing, and publication applications to create digital artifacts, including reports, graphs, and charts, with increasing complexity.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201636

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 127. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR CAREER DEVELOPMENT AND CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes the repeal of §§127.310, 127.312, 127.313, 127.409, 127.753, 127.755, 127.761, and 127.764, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for career development and career and technical education. The proposed repeals would remove the TEKS for eight career and technical education (CTE) courses that will be superseded by 19 TAC §§127.316, 127.325, 127.326, 127.418, 127.782, 127.785, 127.788, and 127.791 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: Currently, CTE TEKS for career development courses for middle and high school are codified in 19 TAC Chapter 127, Subchapters A and B. The TEKS for courses associated with 17 CTE career clusters are codified by subchapter in 19 TAC Chapter 130, Subchapters A-Q. In December 2020, the SBOE began initial steps to prepare for the review and revision of CTE courses in programs of study for the education and training, health science, and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics career clusters. Two additional courses eligible to satisfy a graduation requirement in science were also part of the review. At the November 2021 SBOE meeting, the board approved for second reading and final adoption proposed new TEKS for these courses.

Due to the current structure of Chapter 130, there are not enough sections to add the new CTE courses under consideration in their assigned subchapters. To accommodate the addition of new and future courses, the CTE TEKS in Chapter 130 are being moved to existing 19 TAC Chapter 127, which has been renamed "Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career Development and Career and Technical Education."

The proposed repeals would remove the TEKS for CTE courses that will be superseded by 19 TAC §§127.316, 127.325, 127.326, 127.418, 127.782, 127.785, 127.788, and 127.791 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

The SBOE approved the proposed repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect, there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would repeal existing regulations by removing CTE TEKS that will be superseded by a newly adopted set of TEKS.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not expand or limit an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be removing the TEKS for eight CTE courses that will be superseded by §§127.316, 127.325, 127.326, 127.418, 127.782, 127.785, 127.788, and 127.791 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

SUBCHAPTER G. EDUCATION AND TRAINING

19 TAC §§127.310, 127.312, 127.313

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§127.310.Principles of Education and Training (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

§127.312.Instructional Practices (Two Credits), Adopted 2015.

§127.313.Practicum in Education and Training (Two Credits), Adopted 2015.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201630

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER I. HEALTH SCIENCE

19 TAC §127.409

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§127.409.Health Informatics (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201631

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER O. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS

19 TAC §§127.753, 127.755, 127.761, 127.764

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§127.753.Engineering Design and Problem Solving (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

§127.755.Engineering Science (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

§127.761.Fundamentals of Computer Science (One Credit).

§127.764.Computer Science III (One Credit).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201632

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER O. SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY, ENGINEERING, AND MATHEMATICS

19 TAC §§127.788 - 127.794

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes new §§127.788-127.794, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). The proposed new rules would update the TEKS for the high school cybersecurity and computer science courses to ensure the standards remain current.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: In accordance with statutory requirements that the SBOE by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum, the SBOE follows a board-approved cycle to review and revise the essential knowledge and skills for each subject.

At the January 2021 meeting, the board held a work session to discuss the timeline for the TEKS review and revision process and associated activities, including updates to State Board for Educator Certification teacher assignment rules and certification examinations, adoption of instructional materials, and the completion of the Texas Resource Review. Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff provided an overview of career and technical education (CTE) programs of study and a skills gap analysis that is being completed to inform review and revision of the CTE TEKS.

Also during the January 2021 meeting, staff provided an update on plans for the review and revision of CTE courses that satisfy a science graduation requirement as well as certain courses in the health science, education and training, and STEM programs of study. Applications to serve on these CTE TEKS review work groups were posted on the TEA website in December 2020. TEA staff provided SBOE members applications for approval to serve on a CTE work group at the January 2021 SBOE meeting. Additional applications were provided to SBOE members in February and March 2021. Work groups were convened from March-July 2021 to develop recommendations for the CTE courses. At the June 2021 SBOE meeting, a discussion item for proposed new 19 TAC Chapter 130 was presented to the board. At the September 2021 SBOE meeting, one representative from each CTE TEKS review committee provided invited testimony to the Committee of the Full Board.

The SBOE postponed first reading and filing authorization for a selection of courses from the education and training and STEM programs of study, including §127.783, Engineering Design and Presentation I, and §127.784, Engineering Design and Presentation II, to allow additional time to review and finalize recommendations. The programming and software development work group met in February and March 2022 to finalize their recommendations and to align the standards for the computer science courses with the Kindergarten-Grade 8 Technology Applications TEKS.

The 85th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2017, passed House Bill 3593, requiring that the SBOE approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation. The legislation also added cybersecurity and computer coding to the courses to be included in a STEM endorsement and required that the SBOE adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

In August 2018, a committee of secondary and postsecondary educators and business and industry representatives was selected to develop recommended TEKS for new cybersecurity courses for the required pathway. In April 2019, the SBOE approved for second reading and final adoption TEKS for two new cybersecurity courses: Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone. At the June 2019 meeting, the board approved revisions to the TEKS for the existing Digital Forensics course so that it would better align with the new pathway. In 2020, the SBOE approved the consolidation of the high school technology applications courses into the CTE TEKS. A discussion item was presented to the board at the January 2022 SBOE meeting.

Work groups recommend implementing the Fundamentals of Computer Science and Computer Science III in the 2022-2023 school year. They also recommend implementing the TEKS for Foundations of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Capstone, Digital Forensics, Computer Science I, and Computer Science II in the 2024-2025 school year.

Proposed new §§127.788-127.794 would update the TEKS for the high school cybersecurity and computer science courses to ensure the standards remain current.

The SBOE approved the proposed new sections for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect (2022-2026), there are no fiscal implications to the state. However, there will be implications for TEA if the state develops professional development to help teachers and administrators understand the revised TEKS. Any professional development that is created would be based on whether TEA received an appropriation for professional development in the next biennium.

There may be fiscal implications for school districts and charter schools to implement the proposed revisions to the TEKS, which may include the need for professional development and revisions to district-developed databases, curriculum, and scope and sequence documents. Since curriculum and instruction decisions are made at the local district level, it is difficult to estimate the fiscal impact on any given district.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: TEA staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would create new regulations by proposing new CTE TEKS required to be taught by school districts and charter schools offering the courses.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not expand, limit, or repeal an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be better alignment of the TEKS and coordination of the standards with the adoption of instructional materials. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(c-3), which requires the SBOE to adopt rules for technology applications in Kindergarten-Grade 8 that include coding, computer programming, computational thinking, and cybersecurity; TEC, §28.002(f)(2), which requires the SBOE to approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation; TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to determine by rule the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under TEC, §28.002, and to designate the specific courses in the foundation curriculum that are required under the foundation high school program; TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), which establishes that an endorsement may be earned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), which includes courses related to science, including environmental science; technology, including computer science, cybersecurity, and computer coding; engineering; and advanced mathematics; and TEC, §28.025(c-10), which requires the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a), (c), (c-3), and (f)(2); and 28.025(a), (c-1)(1) and (c-10).

§127.788.Fundamentals of Computer Science (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2023-2024 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2023, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2023-2024 school year and apply to the 2023-2024 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry-relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Fundamentals of Computer Science is intended as a first course for those students just beginning the study of computer science. Students will learn about the computing tools that are used every day. Students will foster their creativity and innovation through opportunities to design, implement, and present solutions to real-world problems. Students will collaborate and use computer science concepts to access, analyze, and evaluate information needed to solve problems. Students will learn computational thinking, problem-solving, and reasoning skills that are the foundation of computer science. By using computer science knowledge and skills that support the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create solutions, and evaluate the results. Students will learn digital citizenship by researching current laws, regulations, and best practices and by practicing integrity and respect. Students will gain an understanding of the principles of computer science through the study of technology operations and concepts.

(4) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability. The student identifies various employment opportunities in the computer science field. The student is expected to:

(A) identify job opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(B) examine the role of certifications, resumes, and portfolios in the computer science profession;

(C) employ effective technical reading and writing skills;

(D) employ effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills;

(E) solve problems and think critically;

(F) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member;

(G) demonstrate an understanding of legal and ethical responsibilities in relation to the field of computer science;

(H) demonstrate planning and time-management skills; and

(I) compare university computer science programs.

(2) Creativity and innovation. The student develops products and generates new knowledge, understanding, and skills. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate and explore various career opportunities within the computer science field and report findings through various media;

(B) create algorithms for the solution of various problems;

(C) discuss methods and create and publish web pages using a web-based language such as HTML, Java Script, or XML; and

(D) use generally accepted design standards for spacing, fonts, and color schemes to create functional user interfaces, including static and interactive screens.

(3) Communication and collaboration. The student communicates and collaborates with peers to contribute to his or her own learning and the learning of others. The student is expected to:

(A) seek and respond to advice or feedback from peers, educators, or professionals when evaluating problem solutions;

(B) debug and solve problems using reference materials and effective strategies; and

(C) publish information in a variety of ways such as print, monitor display, web pages, or video.

(4) Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze problems and design algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate the ability to insert external standalone objects such as scripts or widgets into web pages;

(B) communicate an understanding of binary representation of data in computer systems, perform conversions between decimal and binary number systems, and count in binary number systems;

(C) identify a problem's description, purpose, and goals;

(D) demonstrate coding proficiency in a programming language by developing solutions that create stories, games, and animations;

(E) identify and use the appropriate data type to properly represent the data in a program problem solution;

(F) communicate an understanding of and use variables within a programmed story, game, or animation;

(G) use arithmetic operators to create mathematical expressions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, integer division, and modulus division;

(H) communicate an understanding of and use sequence within a programmed story, game, or animation;

(I) communicate an understanding of and use conditional statements within a programmed story, game, or animation;

(J) communicate an understanding of and use iteration within a programmed story, game, or animation;

(K) use random numbers within a programmed story, game, or animation; and

(L) test program solutions by investigating intended outcomes.

(5) Digital citizenship. The student explores and understands safety, legal, cultural, and societal issues relating to the use of technology and information. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss privacy and copyright laws and model ethical acquisition of digital information by citing sources using established methods;

(B) compare various non-copyright asset sharing options such as open source, freeware, and public domain;

(C) demonstrate proper digital etiquette and knowledge of acceptable use policies when using networks;

(D) explain the value of strong passwords and virus detection and prevention for privacy and security;

(E) discuss and give examples of the impact of computing and computing-related advancements on society; and

(F) analyze how electronic media can affect reliability of information.

(6) Technology operations and concepts. The student understands technology concepts, systems, and operations as they apply to computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and explain the function of basic computer components, including a central processing unit (CPU), storage, and peripheral devices;

(B) use system tools, including appropriate file management;

(C) compare different operating systems;

(D) describe the differences between an application and an operating system; and

(E) use various input, processing, output, and primary/secondary storage devices.

§127.789.Computer Science I (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Prerequisite or corequisite: Algebra I. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry-relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Computer Science I will foster students' creativity and innovation by presenting opportunities to design, implement, and present meaningful programs through a variety of media. Students will collaborate with one another, their instructor, and various electronic communities to solve the problems presented throughout the course. Through computational thinking and data analysis, students will identify task requirements, plan search strategies, and use computer science concepts to access, analyze, and evaluate information needed to solve problems. By using computer science knowledge and skills that support the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create solutions, and evaluate the results. Students will learn digital citizenship by researching current laws, regulations, and best practices and by practicing integrity and respect. Students will gain an understanding of the principles of computer science through the study of technology operations, systems, and concepts.

(4) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability. The student identifies various employment opportunities in the computer science field. The student is expected to:

(A) identify job opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(B) examine the role of certifications, resumes, and portfolios in the computer science profession;

(C) employ effective technical reading and writing skills;

(D) employ effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills;

(E) solve problems and think critically;

(F) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member;

(G) communicate an understanding of legal and ethical responsibilities in relation to the field of computer science;

(H) demonstrate planning and time-management skills; and

(I) compare university computer science programs.

(2) Communication and collaboration. The student communicates and collaborates with peers to contribute to his or her own learning and the learning of others. The student is expected to:

(A) participate in learning communities as a learner, initiator, contributor, and teacher/mentor; and

(B) seek and respond to advice from peers, educators, or professionals when evaluating quality and accuracy of the student's product.

(3) Programming style and presentation. The student utilizes proper programming style and develops appropriate visual presentation of data, input, and output. The student is expected to:

(A) create and properly label and display output;

(B) create interactive input interfaces, with relevant user prompts, to acquire data from a user such as console displays or Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs);

(C) write programs with proper programming style to enhance the readability and functionality of a code by using descriptive identifiers, internal comments, white space, spacing, indentation, and a standardized program style;

(D) format data displays using standard formatting styles; and

(E) display simple vector graphics using lines, circles, and rectangles.

(4) Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze problems and design algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) use program design problem-solving strategies such as flowchart or pseudocode to create program solutions;

(B) create a high-level program plan using a visual tool such as a flowchart or graphic organizer;

(C) identify the tasks and subtasks needed to solve a problem;

(D) identify the data types and objects needed to solve a problem;

(E) identify reusable components from existing code;

(F) design a solution to a problem;

(G) code a solution from a program design;

(H) identify error types, including syntax, lexical, run time, and logic;

(I) test program solutions with valid and invalid test data and analyze resulting behavior;

(J) debug and solve problems using error messages, reference materials, language documentation, and effective strategies;

(K) create and implement common algorithms such as finding greatest common divisor, finding the biggest number out of three, finding primes, making change, and finding the average;

(L) create program solutions that address basic error handling such as preventing division by zero and type mismatch;

(M) select the most appropriate construct for a defined problem;

(N) create program solutions by using the arithmetic operators to create mathematical expressions, including addition, subtraction, multiplication, real division, integer division, and modulus division;

(O) create program solutions to problems using available mathematics library functions or operators, including absolute value, round, power, square, and square root;

(P) develop program solutions that use assignment;

(Q) develop sequential algorithms to solve non-branching and non-iterative problems;

(R) develop algorithms to decision-making problems using branching control statements;

(S) develop iterative algorithms and code programs to solve practical problems;

(T) demonstrate the appropriate use of the relational operators;

(U) demonstrate the appropriate use of the logical operators; and

(V) generate and use random numbers.

(5) Digital citizenship. The student explores and understands safety, legal, cultural, and societal issues relating to the use of technology and information. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss and explain intellectual property, privacy, sharing of information, copyright laws, and software licensing agreements;

(B) practice ethical acquisition and use of digital information;

(C) demonstrate proper digital etiquette, responsible use of software, and knowledge of acceptable use policies;

(D) investigate privacy and security measures, including strong passwords, pass phrases, and other methods of authentication and virus detection and prevention; and

(E) investigate computing and computing-related advancements and the social and ethical ramifications of computer usage.

(6) Technology operations, systems, and concepts. The student understands technology concepts, systems, and operations as they apply to computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the function of major hardware components, including primary and secondary memory, a central processing unit (CPU), and peripherals;

(B) differentiate between current programming languages, discuss the general purpose for each language, and demonstrate knowledge of specific programming terminology and concepts and types of software development applications;

(C) differentiate between a high-level compiled language and an interpreted language;

(D) identify and use concepts of object-oriented design;

(E) differentiate between local and global scope access variable declarations;

(F) encapsulate data and associated subroutines into an abstract data type;

(G) create subroutines that do not return values with and without the use of arguments and parameters;

(H) create subroutines that return typed values with and without the use of arguments and parameters;

(I) create calls to processes passing arguments that match parameters by number, type, and position;

(J) compare data elements using logical and relational operators;

(K) identify and convert binary representation of numeric and nonnumeric data in computer systems using American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) or Unicode;

(L) identify finite limits of numeric data such as integer wrap around and floating point precision;

(M) perform numerical conversions between the decimal and binary number systems and count in the binary number system;

(N) choose, identify, and use the appropriate data types for integer, real, and Boolean data when writing program solutions;

(O) analyze the concept of a variable, including primitives and objects;

(P) represent and manipulate text data, including concatenation and other string functions;

(Q) identify and use the structured data type of one-dimensional arrays to traverse, search, and modify data;

(R) choose, identify, and use the appropriate data type or structure to properly represent the data in a program problem solution; and

(S) compare strongly typed and un-typed programming languages.

§127.790.Computer Science II (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2024-2025 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2024, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2024-2025 school year and apply to the 2024-2025 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 10-12. Prerequisites: Algebra I and Computer Science I or AP Computer Science Principles. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry-relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Computer Science II will foster students' creativity and innovation by presenting opportunities to design, implement, and present meaningful programs through a variety of media. Students will collaborate with one another, their instructor, and various electronic communities to solve the problems presented throughout the course. Through computational thinking and data analysis, students will identify task requirements, plan search strategies, and use computer science concepts to access, analyze, and evaluate information needed to solve problems. By using computer science knowledge and skills that support the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create solutions, and evaluate the results. Students will gain an understanding of computer science through the study of technology operations, systems, and concepts.

(4) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability. The student identifies various employment opportunities in the computer science field. The student is expected to:

(A) identify job opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(B) examine the role of certifications, resumes, and portfolios in the computer science profession;

(C) employ effective technical reading and writing skills;

(D) employ effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills;

(E) solve problems and think critically;

(F) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member;

(G) identify legal and ethical responsibilities in relation to the field of computer science;

(H) demonstrate planning and time-management skills; and

(I) compare university computer science programs.

(2) Creativity and innovation. The student develops products and generates new understandings by extending existing knowledge. The student is expected to:

(A) use program design problem-solving strategies to create program solutions;

(B) read, analyze, and modify programs and their accompanying documentation such as an application programming interface (API), internal code comments, external documentation, or readme files;

(C) follow a systematic problem-solving process that identifies the purpose and goals, the data types and objects needed, and the subtasks to be performed;

(D) compare design methodologies and implementation techniques such as top-down, bottom-up, and black box;

(E) trace a program, including inheritance and black box programming;

(F) choose, identify, and use the appropriate abstract data type, advanced data structure, and supporting algorithms to properly represent the data in a program problem solution; and

(G) use object-oriented programming development methodology, including data abstraction, encapsulation with information hiding, inheritance, and procedural abstraction in program development.

(3) Communication and collaboration. The student communicates and collaborates with peers to contribute to his or her own learning and the learning of others. The student is expected to:

(A) use the principles of software development to work in software design teams;

(B) break a problem statement into specific solution requirements;

(C) create a program development plan;

(D) code part of a solution from a program development plan while a partner codes the remaining part;

(E) collaborate with a team to test a solution, including boundary and standard cases; and

(F) develop presentations to report the solution findings.

(4) Data literacy and management. The student locates, analyzes, processes, and organizes data. The student is expected to:

(A) use programming file structure and file access for required resources;

(B) acquire and process information from text files, including files of known and unknown sizes;

(C) manipulate data using string processing;

(D) manipulate data values by casting between data types;

(E) use the structured data type of one-dimensional arrays to traverse, search, modify, insert, and delete data;

(F) identify and use the structured data type of two-dimensional arrays to traverse, search, modify, insert, and delete data;

(G) identify and use a list object data structure to traverse, search, insert, and delete data; and

(H) differentiate between categories of programming languages, including machine, assembly, high-level compiled, high-level interpreted, and scripted.

(5) Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze problems and design algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) develop sequential algorithms using branching control statements, including nested structures, to create solutions to decision-making problems;

(B) develop choice algorithms using selection control statements based on ordinal values;

(C) demonstrate the appropriate use of short-circuit evaluation in certain situations;

(D) use Boolean algebra, including De Morgan's Law, to evaluate and simplify logical expressions;

(E) develop iterative algorithms using nested loops;

(F) identify, trace, and appropriately use recursion in programming solutions, including algebraic computations;

(G) trace, construct, evaluate, and compare search algorithms, including linear searching and binary searching;

(H) identify, describe, trace, evaluate, and compare standard sorting algorithms, including selection sort, bubble sort, insertion sort, and merge sort;

(I) measure time and space efficiency of various sorting algorithms, including analyzing algorithms using "big-O" notation for best, average, and worst-case data patterns;

(J) develop algorithms to solve various problems such as factoring, summing a series, finding the roots of a quadratic equation, and generating Fibonacci numbers;

(K) test program solutions by investigating boundary conditions; testing classes, methods, and libraries in isolation; and performing stepwise refinement;

(L) identify and debug compile, syntax, runtime, and logic errors;

(M) compare efficiency of search and sort algorithms by using informal runtime comparisons, exact calculation of statement execution counts, and theoretical efficiency values using "big-O" notation, including worst-case, best-case, and average-case time/space analysis;

(N) count, convert, and perform mathematical operations in the decimal, binary, octal, and hexadecimal number systems;

(O) identify maximum integer boundary, minimum integer boundary, imprecision of real number representations, and round-off errors;

(P) create program solutions to problems using a mathematics library;

(Q) use random number generator algorithms to create simulations;

(R) use composition and inheritance relationships to identify and create class definitions and relationships;

(S) explain and use object relationships between defined classes, abstract classes, and interfaces;

(T) create object-oriented class definitions and declarations using variables, constants, methods, parameters, and interface implementations;

(U) create adaptive behaviors using polymorphism;

(V) use reference variables for object and string data types;

(W) use value and reference parameters appropriately in method definitions and method calls;

(X) implement access scope modifiers;

(Y) use object comparison for content quality;

(Z) duplicate objects using the appropriate deep or shallow copy;

(AA) apply functional decomposition to a program solution;

(BB) create objects from class definitions through instantiation; and

(CC) examine and mutate the properties of an object using accessors and modifiers.

§127.791.Computer Science III (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2023-2024 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2023, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2023-2024 school year and apply to the 2023-2024 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under subsection (a) of this section, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. Prerequisite: Computer Science II, Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science A, or International Baccalaureate (IB) Computer Science Standard Level or IB Computer Science Higher Level. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry-relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Computer Science III will foster students' creativity and innovation by presenting opportunities to design, implement, and present meaningful programs through a variety of media. Students will collaborate with one another, their instructor, and various electronic communities to solve the problems presented throughout the course. Through computational thinking and data analysis, students will identify task requirements, plan search strategies, and use computer science concepts to access, analyze, and evaluate information needed to solve problems. By using computer science knowledge and skills that support the work of individuals and groups in solving problems, students will select the technology appropriate for the task, synthesize knowledge, create solutions, and evaluate the results. Students will gain an understanding of advanced computer science data structures through the study of technology operations, systems, and concepts.

(4) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(5) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(6) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability. The student identifies various employment opportunities in the computer science field. The student is expected to:

(A) identify job opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(B) examine the role of certifications, resumes, and portfolios in the computer science profession;

(C) employ effective technical reading and writing skills;

(D) employ effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills;

(E) solve problems and think critically;

(F) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member;

(G) demonstrate an understanding of legal and ethical responsibilities in relation to the field of computer science;

(H) demonstrate planning and time-management skills; and

(I) compare university computer science programs.

(2) Creativity and innovation. The student develops products and generates new understandings by extending existing knowledge. The student is expected to:

(A) apply object-oriented programming, including data abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism, to manage the complexity of a project;

(B) design and implement a class hierarchy;

(C) read and write class specifications using visual organizers, including Unified Modeling Language;

(D) identify, describe, evaluate, compare, and implement standard sorting algorithms that perform sorting operations on data structures, including quick sort and heap sort; and

(E) identify and use the appropriate abstract data type, advanced data structure, and supporting algorithms to properly represent the data in a program problem solution.

(3) Communication and collaboration. The student communicates and collaborates with peers to contribute to his or her own learning and the learning of others. The student is expected to:

(A) use networked tools for file management and collaboration; and

(B) work in software design teams.

(4) Data literacy and management. The student locates, analyzes, processes, and organizes data. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and use two-dimensional ragged arrays to traverse, search, modify, insert, and delete data;

(B) describe and demonstrate proper linked list management, including maintaining the head and safe addition and deletion of linked objects;

(C) create or trace program solutions using a linked-list data structure, including unordered single, ordered single, double, and circular linked;

(D) describe composite data structures, including a linked list of linked lists;

(E) create or trace program solutions using stacks, queues, trees, heaps, priority queues, graph theory, and enumerated data types;

(F) create or trace program solutions using sets, including hash and tree-based data structures;

(G) create or trace program solutions using map style data structures; and

(H) write and modify text file data.

(5) Critical thinking, problem solving, and decision making. The student uses appropriate strategies to analyze problems and design algorithms. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate expressions using bitwise operators;

(B) evaluate expressions using the ternary operator;

(C) identify, trace, and appropriately use recursion in programming solutions, including processing binary trees;

(D) create or trace program solutions using hashing;

(E) explore common algorithms such as matrix addition and multiplication, fractals, Towers of Hanoi, and magic square; and

(F) create program solutions that exhibit robust behavior by recognizing and avoiding runtime errors and handling anticipated errors.

(6) Testing and documentation. The student demonstrates appropriate documentation and testing practices. The student is expected to:

(A) use appropriate formatting and write documentation to support code maintenance, including pre- and post-condition statements;

(B) write program assumptions in the form of assertions;

(C) write a Boolean expression to test a program assertion; and

(D) construct assertions to make explicit program invariants.

(7) Practical application of technology. The student utilizes technology concepts, systems, and operations as they apply to computer science. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and create computer program workflow charts and basic system diagrams, documenting system functions, features, and operations;

(B) gather requirements, design, and implement a process by which programs can interact with each other such as using interfaces;

(C) create simple programs using a low-level language such as assembly;

(D) create discovery programs in a high-level language;

(E) create scripts for an operating system;

(F) explore industry best practices for secure programming; and

(G) explore emerging industry or technology trends.

§127.792.Foundations of Cybersecurity (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2023-2024 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2023, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2023-2024 school year and apply to the 2023-2024 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry and relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Cybersecurity is a critical discipline concerned with safeguarding computers, networks, programs, and data from unauthorized access. As a field, it has gained prominence with the expansion of a globally connected society. As computing has become more sophisticated, so too have the abilities of adversaries looking to penetrate networks and access systems and sensitive information. Cybersecurity professionals prevent, detect, and respond to minimize disruptions to governments, organizations, and individuals.

(4) In the Foundations of Cybersecurity course, students will develop the knowledge and skills needed to explore fundamental concepts related to the ethics, laws, and operations of cybersecurity. Students will examine trends and operations of cyberattacks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Students will review and explore security policies designed to mitigate risks. The skills obtained in this course prepare students for additional study in cybersecurity. A variety of courses are available to students interested in this field. Foundations of Cybersecurity may serve as an introductory course in this field of study.

(5) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability skills. The student demonstrates necessary skills for career development and successful completion of course outcomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate employable work behaviors such as regular attendance, punctuality, maintenance of a professional work environment, and effective written and verbal communication;

(B) identify and demonstrate positive personal qualities such as authenticity, resilience, initiative, and a willingness to learn new knowledge and skills;

(C) solve problems and think critically;

(D) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member; and

(E) demonstrate an understanding of ethical and legal responsibilities and ramifications in relation to the field of cybersecurity.

(2) Professional awareness. The student identifies various employment opportunities and requirements in the cybersecurity field. The student is expected to:

(A) identify job and internship opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(B) research careers in cybersecurity and information security and develop professional profiles that match education and job skills required for obtaining a job in both the public and private sectors;

(C) identify and discuss certifications for cybersecurity-related careers; and

(D) explain the different types of services and roles found within a cybersecurity functional area such as a security operations center (SOC).

(3) Ethics and laws. The student understands ethical and current legal standards, rights and restrictions governing technology, technology systems, digital media, and the use of social media. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and advocate for ethical and legal behaviors both online and offline among peers, family, community, and employers;

(B) investigate and analyze local, state, national, and international cybersecurity laws such as the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001, General Data Protection Regulation, Digital Millennium Copyright Act, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA);

(C) investigate and analyze noteworthy incidents or events regarding cybersecurity;

(D) communicate an understanding of ethical and legal behavior when presented with various scenarios related to cybersecurity activities;

(E) define and identify tactics used in an incident such as social engineering, malware, denial of service, spoofing, and data vandalism; and

(F) identify and use appropriate methods for citing sources.

(4) Ethics and laws. The student differentiates between ethical and malicious hacking. The student is expected to:

(A) identify motivations and perspectives for hacking;

(B) distinguish between types of threat actors such as hacktivists, criminals, state-sponsored actors, and foreign governments;

(C) identify and describe the impact of cyberattacks on the global community, society, and individuals;

(D) differentiate between industry terminology for types of hackers such as black hats, white hats, and gray hats; and

(E) determine and describe possible outcomes and legal ramifications of ethical versus malicious hacking practices.

(5) Ethics and laws. The student identifies and defines cyberterrorism and counterterrorism. The student is expected to:

(A) define cyberterrorism, state-sponsored cyberterrorism, and hacktivism;

(B) compare and contrast physical terrorism and cyberterrorism, including domestic and foreign actors;

(C) define and explain intelligence gathering;

(D) explain the role of cyber defense in protecting national interests and corporations;

(E) explain the role of cyber defense in society and the global economy; and

(F) explain the importance of protecting public infrastructures such as electrical power grids, water systems, pipelines, transportation, and power generation facilities from cyberterrorism.

(6) Digital citizenship. The student understands and demonstrates the social responsibility of end users regarding significant issues related to digital technology, digital hygiene, and cyberbullying. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and understand the nature and value of privacy;

(B) analyze the positive and negative implications of a digital footprint and the maintenance and monitoring of an online presence;

(C) discuss the role and impact of technology on privacy;

(D) identify the signs, emotional effects, and legal consequences of cyberbullying and cyberstalking; and

(E) identify and discuss effective ways to deter and report cyberbullying.

(7) Digital citizenship. The student understands the implications of sharing information and access with others. The student is expected to:

(A) define personally identifiable information (PII);

(B) evaluate the risks and benefits of sharing PII;

(C) describe the impact of granting applications unnecessary permissions such as mobile devices accessing camera and contacts;

(D) describe the risks of granting third parties access to personal and proprietary data on social media and systems; and

(E) describe the risks involved with accepting Terms of Service (ToS) or End User License Agreements (EULA) without a basic understanding of the terms or agreements.

(8) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands basic cybersecurity concepts and definitions. The student is expected to:

(A) define cybersecurity and information security;

(B) identify basic risk management and risk assessment principles related to cybersecurity threats and vulnerabilities, including the Zero Trust model;

(C) explain the fundamental concepts of confidentiality, integrity, and availability (CIA triad);

(D) describe the trade-offs between convenience and security;

(E) identify and analyze cybersecurity breaches and incident responses;

(F) identify and analyze security challenges in domains such as physical, network, cloud, and web;

(G) define and discuss challenges faced by cybersecurity professionals such as internal and external threats;

(H) identify indicators of compromise such as common risks, warning signs, and alerts of compromised systems;

(I) explore and discuss the vulnerabilities of network-connected devices such as Internet of Things (IoT);

(J) use appropriate cybersecurity terminology;

(K) explain the concept of penetration testing, including tools and techniques; and

(L) explore and identify common industry frameworks such as MITRE ATT&CK™, MITRE Engage™, and Cyber Kill Chain, and the Diamond Model.

(9) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands and explains various types of malicious software (malware). The student is expected to:

(A) define malware, including spyware, ransomware, viruses, and rootkits;

(B) identify the transmission and function of malware such as trojan horses, worms, and viruses;

(C) discuss the impact of malware and the model of "as a service";

(D) explain the role of reverse engineering for the detection of malware and viruses; and

(E) describe free and commercial antivirus and anti-malware software also known as Endpoint Detection and Response software.

(10) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands and demonstrates knowledge of techniques and strategies to prevent a system from being compromised. The student is expected to:

(A) define system hardening;

(B) use basic system administration privileges;

(C) explain the importance of patching operating systems;

(D) explain the importance of software updates;

(E) describe standard practices to configure system services;

(F) explain the importance of backup files;

(G) research and explain standard practices for securing computers, networks, and operating systems, including the concept of least privilege; and

(H) identify vulnerabilities caused by a lack of cybersecurity awareness and training such as weaknesses posed by individuals within an organization.

(11) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands basic network operations. The student is expected to:

(A) identify basic network devices, including routers and switches;

(B) define network addressing;

(C) analyze incoming and outgoing rules for traffic passing through a firewall;

(D) identify well known ports by number and service provided, including port 22 (Secure Shell Protocol/ssh), port 80 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol/http), and port 443 (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure/https);

(E) identify commonly exploited ports and services, including ports 20 and 21 (File Transfer Protocol/ftp), port 23 (telnet protocol), and port 3389 (Remote Desktop Protocol/rdp); and

(F) identify common tools for monitoring ports and network traffic.

(12) Cybersecurity skills. The student identifies standard practices of system administration. The student is expected to:

(A) define what constitutes a secure password;

(B) create a secure password policy, including length, complexity, account lockout, and rotation;

(C) identify methods of password cracking such as brute force and dictionary attacks; and

(D) examine and configure security options to allow and restrict access based on user roles.

(13) Cybersecurity skills. The student demonstrates necessary steps to maintain user access on the system. The student is expected to:

(A) identify different types of user accounts and groups on an operating system;

(B) explain the fundamental concepts and standard practices related to access control, including authentication, authorization, and auditing;

(C) compare methods for single- and multi-factor authentication such as passwords, biometrics, personal identification numbers (PINs), secure tokens, and other passwordless authentication methods;

(D) define and explain the purpose and benefits of an air-gapped computer; and

(E) explain how hashes and checksums may be used to validate the integrity of transferred data.

(14) Cybersecurity skills. The student explores the field of digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the importance of digital forensics to organizations, private citizens, and the public sector;

(B) identify the role of chain of custody in digital forensics;

(C) explain the four steps of the forensics process, including collection, examination, analysis, and reporting;

(D) identify when a digital forensics investigation is necessary;

(E) identify information that can be recovered from digital forensics investigations such as metadata and event logs; and

(F) analyze the purpose of event logs and identify suspicious activity.

(15) Cybersecurity skills. The student explores the operations of cryptography. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the purpose of cryptography and encrypting data;

(B) research historical uses of cryptography;

(C) review and explain simple cryptography methods such as shift cipher and substitution cipher;

(D) define and explain public key encryption; and

(E) compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric encryption.

(16) Vulnerabilities, threats, and attacks. The student understands vulnerabilities, threats, and attacks. The student is expected to:

(A) explain how computer vulnerabilities leave systems open to cyberattacks;

(B) explain how users are the most common vehicle for compromising a system at the application level;

(C) define and describe vulnerability, payload, exploit, port scanning, and packet sniffing;

(D) identify internal threats to systems such as logic bombs and insider threats;

(E) define and describe cyberattacks, including man-in-the-middle, distributed denial of service, spoofing, and back-door attacks;

(F) differentiate types of social engineering techniques such as phishing; web links in email, instant messaging, social media, and other online communication with malicious links; shoulder surfing; and dumpster diving; and

(G) identify various types of application-specific attacks such as cross-site scripting and injection attacks.

(17) Vulnerabilities, threats, and attacks. The student evaluates the vulnerabilities of networks. The student is expected to:

(A) compare vulnerabilities associated with connecting devices to public and private networks;

(B) explain device vulnerabilities and security solutions on networks such as supply chain security and counterfeit products;

(C) compare and contrast protocols such as HTTP versus HTTPS;

(D) debate the broadcasting or hiding of a wireless service set identifier (SSID); and

(E) research and discuss threats such as mandatory access control (MAC) spoofing and packet sniffing.

(18) Vulnerabilities, threats, and attacks. The student analyzes threats to computer applications. The student is expected to:

(A) define application security;

(B) identify methods of application security such as secure development policies and practices;

(C) explain the purpose and function of vulnerability scanners;

(D) explain how coding errors may create system vulnerabilities such as buffer overflows and lack of input validation; and

(E) analyze the risks of distributing insecure programs.

(19) Risk assessment. The student understands risk and how risk assessment and risk management defend against attacks. The student is expected to:

(A) define commonly used risk assessment terms, including risk, asset, and inventory;

(B) identify risk management strategies, including acceptance, avoidance, transference, and mitigation; and

(C) compare and contrast risks based on an industry accepted rubric or metric such as Risk Assessment Matrix.

§127.793.Digital Forensics (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2023-2024 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2023, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2023-2024 school year and apply to the 2023-2024 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 9-12. Prerequisite: Foundations of Cybersecurity. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging professions.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services, such as laboratory and testing services and research and development services.

(3) Digital forensics is a critical discipline concerned with analyzing anomalous activity on computers, networks, programs, and data. As a discipline, it has grown with the expansion of a globally connected digital society. As computing has become more sophisticated, so too have the abilities to access systems and sensitive information. Digital forensics professionals investigate and craft appropriate responses to disruptions to governments, organizations, and individuals. Whereas cybersecurity takes a proactive approach to information assurance to minimize harm, digital forensics takes a reactive approach to incident response.

(4) Digital Forensics introduces students to the knowledge and skills of digital forensics. The course provides a survey of the field of digital forensics and incident response.

(5) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability skills. The student identifies necessary skills for career development and employment opportunities. The student is expected to:

(A) investigate the need for digital forensics;

(B) research careers in digital forensics along with the education and job skills required for obtaining a job in both the public and private sector;

(C) identify job and internship opportunities and accompanying job duties and tasks;

(D) identify and discuss certifications for digital forensics careers;

(E) explain ethical and legal responsibilities in relation to the field of digital forensics;

(F) identify and describe businesses and government agencies that use digital forensics;

(G) identify and describe the kinds of crimes investigated by digital forensics specialists; and

(H) solve problems and think critically.

(2) Employability skills. The student communicates and collaborates effectively. The student is expected to:

(A) apply effective teamwork strategies;

(B) collaborate with a community of peers and professionals;

(C) create, review, and edit a report summarizing technical findings; and

(D) present technical information to a non-technical audience.

(3) Ethics and laws. The student recognizes and analyzes ethical and current legal standards, rights, and restrictions related to digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) develop a plan to advocate for ethical and legal behaviors both online and offline among peers, family, community, and employers;

(B) research and discuss local, state, national, and international law such as the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, Title III (Pen Register Act); USA PATRIOT Act of 2001; and Digital Millennium Copyright Act;

(C) research and discuss historic cases or events regarding digital forensics or cybersecurity;

(D) analyze ethical and legal behavior when presented with confidential or sensitive information in various scenarios related to cybersecurity activities;

(E) analyze case studies of computer incidents;

(F) use the findings of a computer incident investigation to reconstruct a computer incident;

(G) identify and discuss intellectual property laws, issues, and use;

(H) contrast legal and illegal aspects of information gathering;

(I) contrast ethical and unethical aspects of information gathering;

(J) analyze emerging legal and societal trends affecting digital forensics; and

(K) discuss how technological changes affect applicable laws.

(4) Digital citizenship. The student understands and demonstrates the social responsibility of end users regarding digital technology, safety, digital hygiene, and cyberbullying. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and use digital information responsibly;

(B) use digital tools responsibly;

(C) identify and use valid and reliable sources of information; and

(D) gain informed consent prior to investigating incidents.

(5) Digital forensics skills. The student locates, processes, analyzes, and organizes data. The student is expected to:

(A) identify sources of data;

(B) analyze and report data collected;

(C) discuss how to maintain data integrity such as by enabling encryption;

(D) examine and describe metadata of a file; and

(E) examine and describe how multiple data sources can be used for digital forensics, including investigating malicious software (malware) and email threats.

(6) Digital forensics skills. The student understands software concepts and operations as they apply to digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) compare software applications as they apply to digital forensics;

(B) describe the purpose of various application types such as email, web, file sharing, security applications, and data concealment tools;

(C) identify the different purposes of data formats such as pdf, wav, jpeg, and exe;

(D) describe how application logs and metadata are used for investigations such as Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) reports;

(E) describe digital forensics tools;

(F) select the proper software tool based on appropriateness, effectiveness, and efficiency for a given digital forensics scenario;

(G) describe components of applications such as configurations settings, data, supporting files, and user interface; and

(H) describe how the "as a service" model applies to incident response.

(7) Digital forensics skills. The student understands operating systems concepts and functions as they apply to digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) compare various operating systems;

(B) describe file attributes, including access and creation times;

(C) describe how operating system logs are used for investigations;

(D) compare and contrast the file systems of various operating systems;

(E) compare various primary and secondary storage devices; and

(F) differentiate between volatile and non-volatile memory.

(8) Digital forensics skills. The student understands networking concepts and operations as they apply to digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) examine networks, including Internet Protocol (IP) addressing and subnets;

(B) describe the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model;

(C) describe the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) model;

(D) use network forensic analysis tools to examine network traffic data from sources such as firewalls, routers, intrusion detection systems (IDS), and remote access logs; and

(E) identify malicious or suspicious network activities such as mandatory access control (MAC) spoofing and rogue wireless access points.

(9) Digital forensics skills. The student explains the principles of access controls. The student is expected to:

(A) define the principle of least privilege;

(B) describe the impact of granting access and permissions;

(C) identify different access components such as passwords, tokens, key cards, and biometric verification systems;

(D) explain the value of an access log to identify suspicious activity;

(E) describe the risks of granting third parties access to personal and proprietary data on social media and systems;

(F) describe the risks involved with accepting Terms of Service (ToS) or End User License Agreements (EULA) without a basic understanding of the terms or agreements; and

(G) identify various access control methods such as mandatory access control (MAC), attribute-based access control (ABAC), role-based access control (RBAC), and discretionary access control (DAC).

(10) Incident response. The student follows a methodological approach to prepare for and respond to an incident. The student is expected to:

(A) define the components of the incident response cycle, including preparation; detection and analysis; containment, eradication, and recovery; and post-incident activity;

(B) describe incident response preparation;

(C) discuss incident response detection and analysis;

(D) discuss containment and eradication of and recovery from an incident;

(E) describe post-incident activities such as reflecting on lessons learned, using collected incident data, and retaining evidence of an incident;

(F) develop an incident response plan; and

(G) describe ways a user may compromise the validity of existing evidence.

(11) Incident response. The student objectively analyzes collected data from an incident. The student is expected to:

(A) identify the role of chain of custody in digital forensics;

(B) describe safe data handling procedures;

(C) explain the fundamental concepts of confidentiality, integrity, availability, authentication, and authorization;

(D) identify and report information conflicts or suspicious activity;

(E) identify events of interest and suspicious activity by examining network traffic; and

(F) identify events of interest and suspicious activity by examining event logs.

(12) Incident response. The student analyzes the various ways systems can be compromised. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the different signatures of cyberattacks;

(B) identify points of weakness and attack vectors such as online spoofing, phishing, and social engineering; and

(C) differentiate between simple versus multistage attacks.

§127.794.Cybersecurity Capstone (One Credit), Adopted 2022.

(a) Implementation. The provisions of this section shall be implemented by school districts beginning with the 2023-2024 school year.

(1) No later than August 1, 2023, the commissioner of education shall determine whether instructional materials funding has been made available to Texas public schools for materials that cover the essential knowledge and skills identified in this section.

(2) If the commissioner makes the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available this section shall be implemented beginning with the 2023-2024 school year and apply to the 2023-2024 and subsequent school years.

(3) If the commissioner does not make the determination that instructional materials funding has been made available under this subsection, the commissioner shall determine no later than August 1 of each subsequent school year whether instructional materials funding has been made available. If the commissioner determines that instructional materials funding has been made available, the commissioner shall notify the State Board of Education and school districts that this section shall be implemented for the following school year.

(b) General requirements. This course is recommended for students in Grades 11 and 12. Prerequisite: Foundations of Cybersecurity. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(c) Introduction.

(1) Career and technical education instruction provides content aligned with challenging academic standards, industry relevant technical knowledge, and college and career readiness skills for students to further their education and succeed in current and emerging foundations.

(2) The Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Career Cluster focuses on planning, managing, and providing scientific research and professional and technical services such as laboratory and testing services, and research and development services.

(3) Cybersecurity is a critical discipline concerned with safeguarding computers, networks, programs, and data from unauthorized access. As a field, it has gained prominence with the expansion of a globally connected society. As computing has become more sophisticated, so too have the abilities of adversaries looking to penetrate networks and access sensitive information. Cybersecurity professionals prevent, detect, and respond to minimize disruptions to governments, organizations, and individuals.

(4) In the Cybersecurity Capstone course, students will develop the knowledge and skills needed to explore advanced concepts related to the ethics, laws, and operations of cybersecurity. Students will examine trends and operations of cyberattacks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Students will develop security policies to mitigate risks. The skills obtained in this course prepare students for additional study toward industry certification. A variety of courses are available to students interested in the cybersecurity field. Cybersecurity Capstone may serve as a culminating course in this field of study.

(5) Students are encouraged to participate in extended learning experiences such as career and technical student organizations and other leadership or extracurricular organizations.

(6) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(d) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Employability skills. The student demonstrates necessary skills for career development and successful completion of course outcomes. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and demonstrate employable work behaviors such as regular attendance, punctuality, maintenance of a professional work environment, and effective written and verbal communication;

(B) identify and demonstrate positive personal qualities such as authenticity, resilience, initiative, and a willingness to learn new knowledge and skills;

(C) solve problems and think critically;

(D) demonstrate leadership skills and function effectively as a team member; and

(E) communicate an understanding of ethical and legal responsibilities in relation to the field of cybersecurity.

(2) Employability skills. The student identifies various employment opportunities in the cybersecurity field. The student is expected to:

(A) develop a personal career plan along with the education, job skills, and experience necessary to achieve career goals;

(B) develop a resume or a portfolio appropriate to a chosen career plan; and

(C) demonstrate interview skills for successful job placement.

(3) Ethics and laws. The student evaluates ethical and current legal standards, rights, and restrictions governing technology, technology systems, digital media and information technology, and the use of social media in the context of today's society. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze and apply to a scenario local, state, national, and international cybersecurity laws such as David's Law and Digital Millennium Copyright Act;

(B) evaluate noteworthy incidents or events regarding cybersecurity; and

(C) evaluate compliance requirements such as Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA), and Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC).

(4) Digital citizenship. The student understands and demonstrates the social responsibility of end users regarding significant issues relating to digital technology, safety, digital hygiene, and cyberbullying. The student is expected to:

(A) debate the relationship between privacy and security; and

(B) differentiate between ethical and unethical behavior when presented with various scenarios related to cybersecurity activities.

(5) Cybersecurity skills. The student simulates the process of penetration testing. The student is expected to:

(A) illustrate the phases of penetration testing, including plan, discover, attack, and report;

(B) design a plan to gain authorization for penetration testing;

(C) evaluate commonly used vulnerability scanning tools such as port scanning, packet sniffing, and password crackers;

(D) develop a list of exploits based on results of scanning tool reports; and

(E) prioritize a list of mitigations based on results of scanning tool reports.

(6) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands common cryptographic methods. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate symmetric and asymmetric algorithms such as substitution cipher, Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Diffie-Hellman, and Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA);

(B) interpret the purpose of hashing algorithms, including blockchain;

(C) demonstrate password salting;

(D) explain and create a digital signature; and

(E) illustrate steganography.

(7) Cybersecurity skills. The student understands the concept of system defense. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the purpose of establishing system baselines;

(B) evaluate the role of physical security;

(C) evaluate the functions of network security devices such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS), intrusion prevention systems (IPS), intrusion detection prevention systems (IDPS), and security information and event management (SIEM) systems;

(D) analyze log files for anomalies; and

(E) develop a plan demonstrating the concept of defense in depth.

(8) Cybersecurity skills. The student demonstrates an understanding of secure network design. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the benefits of network segmentation, including sandboxes, air gaps, and virtual local area networks (VLAN);

(B) investigate and discuss the role of software-managed networks, including virtualization and cloud architecture;

(C) evaluate the role of honeypots and honeynets in networks; and

(D) create an incoming and outgoing network policy for a firewall.

(9) Cybersecurity skills. The student integrates principles of digital forensics. The student is expected to:

(A) identify cyberattacks by their signatures, indicators, or patterns;

(B) explain proper data acquisition;

(C) examine evidence from devices for suspicious activities; and

(D) critique current cybercrime cases involving digital forensics.

(10) Cybersecurity skills. The student explores expanding and emerging technology. The student is expected to:

(A) describe the concept of Security as a Service and the role of managed security service providers (MSSP);

(B) describe the integration of artificial intelligence and machine learning in cybersecurity;

(C) investigate impacts made by predictive analytics on cybersecurity; and

(D) research and investigate other emerging trends such as augmented reality and quantum computing.

(11) Cybersecurity skills. The student uses various operating system environments. The student is expected to:

(A) select and execute appropriate commands via the command line interface (CLI) such as ls, cd, pwd, cp, mv, chmod, ps, sudo, and passwd;

(B) describe the file system structure for multiple operating systems;

(C) manipulate and edit files within the CLI; and

(D) determine network status using the CLI with commands such as ping, ifconfig/ipconfig, traceroute/tracert, and netstat.

(12) Cybersecurity skills. The student clearly and effectively communicates technical information. The student is expected to:

(A) collaborate with others to create a technical report;

(B) create, review, and edit a report summarizing technical findings; and

(C) present technical information to a non-technical audience.

(13) Risk assessment. The student understands risk and how risk assessment and risk management defend against attacks. The student is expected to:

(A) differentiate types of attacks, including operating systems, software, hardware, network, physical, social engineering, and cryptographic;

(B) explain blended threats such as combinations of software, hardware, network, physical, social engineering, and cryptographic;

(C) discuss types of risk, including business, operational, security, and financial;

(D) discuss risk response techniques, including accept, transfer, avoid, and mitigate;

(E) develop a plan of preventative measures based on discovered vulnerabilities and the likelihood of a cyberattack;

(F) identify and discuss common vulnerability disclosure websites;

(G) describe common web vulnerabilities such as cross-site scripting, buffer overflow, injection, spoofing, and denial of service;

(H) describe common data destruction and media sanitation practices such as wiping, shredding, and degaussing; and

(I) develop an incident response plan for a given scenario or attack.

(14) Risk assessment. The student understands risk management processes and concepts. The student is expected to:

(A) describe Zero Trust, least privilege, and various access control methods such as mandatory access control (MAC), role-based access control (RBAC), and discretionary access control (DAC);

(B) develop and defend a plan for multi-factor access control using components such as biometric verification systems, key cards, tokens, and passwords; and

(C) review and appraise a disaster recovery plan (DRP) that includes backups, redundancies, system dependencies, and alternate sites.

(15) Risk assessment. The student investigates the role and effectiveness of environmental controls. The student is expected to:

(A) explain commonly used physical security controls, including lock types, fences, barricades, security doors, and mantraps; and

(B) describe the role of embedded systems such as fire suppression; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems; security alarms; and video monitoring.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201634

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 130. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR CAREER AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION

SUBCHAPTER J. HUMAN SERVICES

19 TAC §130.277

The State Board of Education (SBOE) proposes the repeal of §130.277, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for career development and career and technical education. The proposed repeal would remove the TEKS for a career and technical education (CTE) course that will be superseded by 19 TAC §127.317 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

BACKGROUND INFORMATION AND JUSTIFICATION: Currently, CTE TEKS for career development courses for middle and high school are codified in 19 TAC Chapter 127, Subchapters A and B. The TEKS for courses associated with 17 CTE career clusters are codified by subchapter in 19 TAC Chapter 130, Subchapters A-Q. In December 2020, the SBOE began initial steps to prepare for the review and revision of CTE courses in programs of study for the education and training, health science, and science, technology, engineering, and mathematics career clusters. Two additional courses eligible to satisfy a graduation requirement in science were also part of the review. At the November 2021 SBOE meeting, the board approved for second reading and final adoption proposed new TEKS for these courses.

Due to the current structure of Chapter 130, there are not enough sections to add the new CTE courses under consideration in their assigned subchapters. To accommodate the addition of new and future courses, the CTE TEKS in Chapter 130 are being moved to existing 19 TAC Chapter 127, which has been renamed "Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career Development and Career and Technical Education."

The proposed repeal would remove the TEKS for a CTE course that will be superseded by 19 TAC §127.317 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year.

The SBOE approved the proposed repeal for first reading and filing authorization at its April 8, 2022 meeting.

FISCAL IMPACT: Monica Martinez, associate commissioner for standards and programs, has determined that for the first five years the proposal is in effect, there are no additional costs to state or local government required to comply with the proposal.

LOCAL EMPLOYMENT IMPACT: The proposal has no effect on local economy; therefore, no local employment impact statement is required under Texas Government Code, §2001.022.

SMALL BUSINESS, MICROBUSINESS, AND RURAL COMMUNITY IMPACT: The proposal has no direct adverse economic impact for small businesses, microbusinesses, or rural communities; therefore, no regulatory flexibility analysis specified in Texas Government Code, §2006.002, is required.

COST INCREASE TO REGULATED PERSONS: The proposal does not impose a cost on regulated persons, another state agency, a special district, or a local government and, therefore, is not subject to Texas Government Code, §2001.0045.

TAKINGS IMPACT ASSESSMENT: The proposal does not impose a burden on private real property and, therefore, does not constitute a taking under Texas Government Code, §2007.043.

GOVERNMENT GROWTH IMPACT: Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepared a Government Growth Impact Statement assessment for this proposed rulemaking. During the first five years the proposed rulemaking would be in effect, it would repeal an existing regulation by removing CTE TEKS that will be superseded by a newly adopted set of TEKS.

The proposed rulemaking would not create or eliminate a government program; would not require the creation of new employee positions or elimination of existing employee positions; would not require an increase or decrease in future legislative appropriations to the agency; would not require an increase or decrease in fees paid to the agency; would not create a new regulation; would not expand or limit an existing regulation; would not increase or decrease the number of individuals subject to its applicability; and would not positively or adversely affect the state's economy.

PUBLIC BENEFIT AND COST TO PERSONS: Ms. Martinez has determined that for each year of the first five years the proposal is in effect, the public benefit anticipated as a result of enforcing the proposal would be removing the TEKS for a CTE course that will be superseded by §127.317 beginning with the 2022-2023 school year. There is no anticipated economic cost to persons who are required to comply with the proposal.

DATA AND REPORTING IMPACT: The proposal would have no data and reporting impact.

PRINCIPAL AND CLASSROOM TEACHER PAPERWORK REQUIREMENTS: TEA has determined that the proposal would not require a written report or other paperwork to be completed by a principal or classroom teacher.

PUBLIC COMMENTS: The public comment period on the proposal begins May 6, 2022, and ends at 5:00 p.m. on June 10, 2022. A form for submitting public comments is available on the TEA website at https://tea.texas.gov/About_TEA/Laws_and_Rules/SBOE_Rules_(TAC)/Proposed_State_Board_of_Education_Rules/. The SBOE will take registered oral and written comments on the proposal at the appropriate committee meeting in June 2022 in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. A request for a public hearing on the proposal submitted under the Administrative Procedure Act must be received by the commissioner of education not more than 14 calendar days after notice of the proposal has been published in the Texas Register on May 6, 2022.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeal is proposed under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to identify by rule the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeal implements Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§130.277.Child Development (One Credit), Adopted 2015.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the proposal and found it to be within the state agency's legal authority to adopt.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on April 25, 2022.

TRD-202201633

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Earliest possible date of adoption: June 5, 2022

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497