TITLE 19. EDUCATION

PART 2. TEXAS EDUCATION AGENCY

CHAPTER 74. CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS

SUBCHAPTER B. GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS

19 TAC §74.12, §74.13

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts amendments to §74.12 and §74.13, concerning graduation requirements. The amendments are adopted with changes to the proposed text as published in the February 22, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 772) and will be republished. The adopted amendments align with recent changes to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for fine arts and establish courses to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endorsement.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. The 83rd Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2013, passed House Bill (HB) 5, amending Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.025, to transition from three high school graduation programs to one foundation high school program with endorsement options to increase flexibility for students. HB 5 gave the SBOE the authority to identify advanced courses related to the new graduation program, identify the curriculum requirements for the endorsements, and determine the requirements for performance acknowledgments related to the new graduation program.

The 85th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2017, passed HB 3593, amending TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), to add cybersecurity and computer coding to the courses to be included in a STEM endorsement. HB 3593 also added TEC, §28.025(c-10), to require the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement. In August 2018, a committee of secondary and postsecondary educators and business and industry representatives was selected to develop recommendations for TEKS for new cybersecurity courses and for the cybersecurity pathway. The committee met again in October 2018 and January 2019 to finalize their recommendations.

For students to earn state credit toward specific graduation requirements, a course must be approved by the SBOE and included in SBOE rule. At the September 2017 meeting, the SBOE discussed International Baccalaureate (IB) courses that are not currently included in SBOE rule and considerations regarding the appropriate amount of state credit that should be awarded for IB courses. At that time, the SBOE requested that Texas Education Agency (TEA) staff prepare rule text to address these issues. Throughout 2018, the SBOE adopted rules to align the TEKS with current course offerings by the International Baccalaureate Organization. In September 2018, the SBOE discussed the addition of two currently approved innovative courses, IB Film Standard Level and IB Film Higher Level, to the TEKS for fine arts, and in November 2018, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization the proposal to add the two new courses. At the January-February 2019 meeting, the SBOE approved for second reading and final adoption the TEKS for IB Film Standard Level and IB Film Higher Level.

The proposed amendments to 19 TAC §74.12 and §74.13 were approved for first reading and filing authorization at the January-February 2019 SBOE meeting.

The proposed amendment to §74.12, Foundation High School Program, added IB Film Standard or Higher Level to the list of courses that would satisfy a fine arts credit. Language was also added to clarify that the third and fourth English credits may consist of a comparable IB course that meets the TEKS for English III or IV, respectively. In addition, a technical correction was made in subsection (b)(5)(F) to update a cross reference.

The proposed amendment to §74.13, Endorsements, established course options for a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

At the April 2019 meeting, the SBOE postponed approving §74.12 and §74.13 for second reading and final adoption until the June 2019 meeting and requested that TEA staff provide proposed language to allow two-credit IB courses in mathematics or science to satisfy more than one graduation requirement.

The following changes were made to §74.12 and §74.13 since published as proposed.

§74.12, Foundation High School Program

Subsection (b)(2)(B)(viii) was amended to remove IB courses from the requirement that only "a comparable AP or IB mathematics course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation" may satisfy the third credit for mathematics required under (b)(2)(B).

Subsection (b)(2)(C) was deleted and replaced with new subsection (b)(2)(C) to read, "One credit of a two-credit IB mathematics course selected from Chapter 111 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics) may satisfy the additional mathematics credit."

Subsection (b)(3)(B)(vii) was amended to remove IB courses from the requirement that only "a comparable AP or IB science course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation" may satisfy the science requirement outlined under Subsection (b)(2)(B).

New subsection (b)(3)(B)(xxiii) was added to read, "one credit of a two-credit IB science course selected from Chapter 112 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science)."

Subsection (b)(3)(D) was deleted.

§74.13, Endorsements

Subsection (e)(2)(H) was amended to remove IB courses from the requirement that only "a comparable AP or IB mathematics course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation" may satisfy the fourth credit for mathematics required under (e)(2).

Subsection (e)(5) was deleted and replaced with new subsection (e)(5) to read, "The fourth mathematics credit may be satisfied with one credit of a two-credit IB mathematics course selected from Chapter 111 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics) that does not count toward another credit required for graduation."

Subsection (e)(6)(G) was amended to remove IB courses from the requirement that only "a comparable AP or IB science course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation" may satisfy the fourth credit for science required under (e)(6).

Subsection (e)(6)(Y) was deleted and replaced with new subsection (e)(6)(Y) to read, "The fourth science credit may be satisfied with one credit of a two-credit IB science course selected from Chapter 112 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science) that does not count toward another credit required for graduation."

References to 19 TAC Chapter 118, Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits, were removed since the chapter is being repealed effective August 1, 2019.

The SBOE approved the amendments for second reading and final adoption at its June 14, 2019 meeting.

In accordance with TEC, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the amendments for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year. The earlier effective date will allow districts of innovation that begin school prior to the statutorily required start date to implement these amendments when they begin their school year. The effective date is August 1, 2019.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. The public comment period on the proposal began February 22, 2019, and ended March 29, 2019. The SBOE also provided an opportunity for registered oral and written comments at its April 2019 meeting in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. Following is a summary of the public comments received and the corresponding responses.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for the proposed new cybersecurity courses and added that the inclusion of cybersecurity courses for the STEM endorsement is long overdue.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the inclusion of a new cybersecurity pathway in §74.13(f)(1)(E) for the STEM endorsement is appropriate.

Comment. One administrator asked whether new §126.51, Foundations of Cybersecurity, and §126.52, Cybersecurity Capstone, which were included in the proposed new cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement, would be eligible for career and technical education (CTE) weighted funding.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Technology applications courses included in the new cybersecurity pathway on the STEM endorsement in §74.13(f)(1)(E) will qualify for CTE weighted funding. The SBOE determined that the Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone were appropriately included in the cybersecurity pathway; therefore, the courses are expected to qualify for CTE weighted funding.

Comment. Four administrators stated that the proposed new Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone courses should receive CTE weighted funding.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that the Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone courses are appropriately included in the cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement. Courses included in the cybersecurity pathway are expected to qualify for CTE weighted funding.

Comment. One administrator recommended moving §126.32, Fundamentals of Computer Science; §126.33, Computer Science I; and §126.65, Advanced Placement (AP) Computer Science Principles, from 19 TAC Chapter 126 to Chapter 130. The commenter stated that school districts are now able to fund these computer science courses because they receive CTE weighted funding; therefore, even if the courses remain in 19 TAC Chapter 126, they should continue to receive the funding.

Response. The SBOE determined that Computer Science I and AP Computer Science Principles were appropriately included in §74.13(f)(E); therefore, the courses are expected to qualify for CTE weighted funding. However, the SBOE disagrees that Fundamentals of Computer Science should be included in §74.13(f)(1)(E).

Comment. One administrator stated that districts were notified that Fundamentals of Computer Science, Computer Science I, and AP Computer Science Principles qualify for weighted funding for the 2018-2019 school year. The commenter asked whether the additional computer science courses proposed for the cybersecurity pathway in new §74.13(f)(1)(E) would also receive CTE weighted funding even though the courses are technology applications courses.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Technology applications courses approved for the cybersecurity pathway on the STEM endorsement in §74.13(f)(1)(E) are expected to qualify for CTE weighted funding beginning with the 2019-2010 school year. The SBOE determined that the following technology applications courses should be included the cybersecurity STEM pathway: Foundations of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Capstone, Computer Science I, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Computer Science A, and Digital Forensics. However, the SBOE determined that it was not appropriate to include Fundamentals of Computer Science in §74.13(f)(1)(E).

Comment. One administrator stated that allowing the five additional technology applications courses in cybersecurity to generate CTE weighted funding is a good idea.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the technology applications courses included in §74.13(f)(1)(E) were appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One administrator stated that all technology applications courses should be approved for CTE weighted funding.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that, in accordance with statute, TEC, §28.025(c-10), the SBOE was limited to adopt or select only five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity STEM pathway. The SBOE determined that the following technology applications courses were appropriately included in the required pathway: Foundations of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Capstone, Computer Science I, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Computer Science A, and Digital Forensics.

Comment. One administrator stated that all computer science courses should be approved for CTE weighted funding.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that, in accordance with statute, TEC, §28.025(c-10), the SBOE was limited to adopt or select only five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity STEM pathway. The SBOE determined that the following technology applications courses were appropriately included in the required pathway: Foundations of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Capstone, Computer Science I, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Computer Science A, and Digital Forensics.

Comment. One representative from higher education stated that physics should be mandatory, not optional, if the SBOE wants to prepare students for cybersecurity and technology. The commenter stated that quantum technology is based on physics. The commenter added that while the physics curriculum should be adjusted to be more inclusive, all the basic concepts of light/lasers, wave properties, and laws of conservation are based on physics.

Response. The SBOE agrees that physics is important for certain courses of study and has determined that no changes to the requirement for students to complete physics or Principles of Technology to earn a STEM endorsement are necessary.

Comment. One teacher stated that to teach cybersecurity it is necessary to have a basic understanding of physics, which includes quantum mechanics; fundamental particles; wave particle duality; gravitational waves; and particle production processes during accelerator collisions. The commenter recommended adding physics as a required course for high school students instead of adding cybersecurity courses.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One administrator asked why technology applications courses in the proposed cybersecurity pathway remain in 19 TAC Chapter 126 when §74.13(f)(1)(A) clearly states that courses that count toward the CTE option on the STEM endorsement must come from 19 TAC Chapters 127 or 130. The commenter asked whether the SBOE intends to amend §74.13(f)(1)(A) to include 19 TAC Chapter 126.

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. There are multiple pathway options for students to follow to fulfill the requirements for a STEM endorsement. Section 74.13(f)(1)(A) is only one such option for students taking CTE courses. In accordance with statute, TEC, §28.025(c-10), the SBOE is required to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity STEM pathway. The SBOE determined that the following technology applications courses were appropriately included in the required pathway: Foundations of Cybersecurity, Cybersecurity Capstone, Computer Science I, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Computer Science A, and Digital Forensics. The SBOE also determined that changes to §74.13(f)(1)(A) were not necessary.

Comment. One administrator asked whether the cybersecurity technology applications course, 19 TAC §126.52, Cybersecurity Capstone, included in the proposed new cybersecurity pathway in §74.13(f)(1)(E), would also count as a final or an advanced course under the CTE option for the STEM endorsement in §74.13(f)(1)(A).

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. CTE courses from 19 TAC Chapters 127 and 130 are required for the CTE option for a STEM endorsement under §74.13(f)(1)(A). Cybersecurity Capstone is a technology applications course from 19 TAC Chapter 126 and, therefore, would not count toward requirements for CTE courses selected from 19 TAC Chapters 127 or 130 in §74.13(f)(1)(A).

Comment. One administrator asked whether the technology applications courses listed in §74.13(f)(1)(B) would count as advanced courses for the CTE option in §74.13(f)(1)(A).

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. CTE courses from 19 TAC Chapters 127 and 130 are required for the CTE option for a STEM endorsement under §74.13(f)(1)(A). The technology applications courses from 19 TAC Chapter 126 listed in §74.13(f)(1)(B), therefore, do not count toward the requirement for an advanced CTE course from 19 TAC Chapter 127 or 130 in §74.13(f)(1)(A).

Comment. One administrator stated that the Principles of Cybersecurity innovative course should be included in the endorsement for cybersecurity because the innovative course does not expire until the 2021-2022 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that elements of the Principles of Cybersecurity innovative course merits inclusion in the cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement and provides the following clarification. The Principles of Cybersecurity course will be deleted from the list of approved innovative courses and replaced with the new TEKS-based course, Foundations of Cybersecurity, beginning with the 2019-2020 school year.

Comment. Three representatives from Texas International Baccalaureate Schools expressed concern that students enrolled in International Baccalaureate (IB) courses cannot earn some endorsements because of the wording in §74.13(e)(2)(H) and §74.13(e)(6)(G).

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to strike the reference to IB from §74.13(e)(2)(H) and §74.13(e)(6)(G).

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(f)(2), which requires the SBOE to approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation; TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school program that are consistent with the required curriculum under TEC, §28.002, and to designate the specific courses in the foundation curriculum that are required under the foundation high school program; TEC, §28.025(b-1), which requires the SBOE to by rule require that the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school program include a requirement that students successfully complete four credits in English language arts, including one credit in English I, one credit in English II, one credit in English III, and one credit in an advanced English course; three credits in mathematics, including one credit in Algebra I, one credit in geometry, and one credit in any advanced mathematics course; three credits in science, including one credit in biology, one credit in any advanced science course, and one credit in integrated physics and chemistry or in an additional advanced science course; three credits in social studies, including one credit in United States history, at least one-half credit in government and at least one-half credit in economics, and one credit in world geography or world history; two credits in the same language in a language other than English; five elective credits; one credit in fine arts; and one credit in physical education; TEC, §28.025(c-1), which requires the SBOE to by rule provide students with multiple options for earning each endorsement, including, to the greatest extent possible, coherent sequences of courses. The SBOE by rule must permit a student to enroll in courses under more than one endorsement curriculum before the student's junior year; TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), which establishes that an endorsement may be earned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), which includes courses related to science, including environmental science; technology, including computer science, cybersecurity, and computer coding; engineering; and advanced mathematics; TEC, §28.025(c-2), which requires the SBOE, in adopting rules, to require a student in order to earn any endorsement to successfully complete four credits in mathematics, which must include Algebra I, geometry, and two advanced mathematics courses; four credits in science, which must include biology, integrated physics and chemistry or an additional advanced science course, and two advanced science courses or an advanced career and technology course; and two additional elective credits. The SBOE, in adopting rules, is also required to develop additional curriculum requirements for each endorsement with the direct participation of educators and business, labor, and industry representatives and to require each school district to report to the agency the categories of endorsements for which the district offers all courses for curriculum requirements, as determined by board rule; and TEC, §28.025(c-10), which requires the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4), 28.002, and 28.025.

§74.12.Foundation High School Program.

(a) Credits. A student must earn at least 22 credits to complete the Foundation High School Program.

(b) Core courses. A student must demonstrate proficiency in the following.

(1) English language arts--four credits. Two of the credits must consist of English I and II. (Students with limited English proficiency who are at the beginning or intermediate level of English language proficiency, as defined by §74.4(d) of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards), may satisfy the English I and English II graduation requirements by successfully completing English I for Speakers of Other Languages and English II for Speakers of Other Languages.) A third credit must consist of English III, a comparable Advanced Placement (AP) English language arts course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation, or a comparable International Baccalaureate (IB) English language arts course that meets all the requirements in §110.33 of this title (relating to English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010). A fourth credit may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following courses:

(A) English IV;

(B) Independent Study in English;

(C) Literary Genres;

(D) Creative Writing;

(E) Research and Technical Writing;

(F) Humanities;

(G) Public Speaking III;

(H) Communication Applications, which must be combined with another half credit from the other courses listed in subparagraphs (A)-(G) and (I)-(S) of this paragraph;

(I) Oral Interpretation III;

(J) Debate III;

(K) Independent Study in Speech;

(L) Independent Study in Journalism;

(M) Advanced Broadcast Journalism III;

(N) Advanced Journalism: Newspaper III;

(O) Advanced Journalism: Yearbook III;

(P) a comparable Advanced Placement (AP) English language arts course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation;

(Q) a comparable International Baccalaureate (IB) English language arts course that meets all the requirements in §110.34 of this title (relating to English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Beginning with School Year 2009-2010);

(R) after the successful completion of English I, II, and III, a locally developed English language arts course or other activity, including an apprenticeship or training hours needed to obtain an industry-recognized credential or certificate that is developed pursuant to the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(g-1);

(S) Business English; and

(T) a college preparatory English language arts course that is developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.014.

(2) Mathematics--three credits. Two of the credits must consist of Algebra I and Geometry.

(A) The additional credit may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following courses or a credit selected from the courses listed in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph:

(i) Mathematical Models with Applications;

(ii) Mathematical Applications in Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources;

(iii) Digital Electronics;

(iv) Robotics Programming and Design;

(v) Financial Mathematics;

(vi) Applied Mathematics for Technical Professionals;

(vii) Accounting II;

(viii) Manufacturing Engineering Technology II; and

(ix) Robotics II.

(B) The additional credit may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following courses:

(i) Algebra II;

(ii) Precalculus;

(iii) Advanced Quantitative Reasoning;

(iv) Independent Study in Mathematics;

(v) Discrete Mathematics for Problem Solving;

(vi) Algebraic Reasoning;

(vii) Statistics;

(viii) a comparable AP mathematics course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation;

(ix) AP Computer Science A;

(x) IB Computer Science Higher Level;

(xi) Engineering Mathematics;

(xii) Statistics and Business Decision Making;

(xiii) Mathematics for Medical Professionals;

(xiv) Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science;

(xv) pursuant to the TEC, §28.025(b-5), after the successful completion of Algebra II, a mathematics course endorsed by an institution of higher education as a course for which the institution would award course credit or as a prerequisite for a course for which the institution would award course credit. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) shall maintain a current list of courses offered under this clause; and

(xvi) after the successful completion of Algebra I and Geometry, a locally developed mathematics course or other activity, including an apprenticeship or training hours needed to obtain an industry-recognized credential or certificate that is developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.002(g-1).

(C) One credit of a two-credit IB mathematics course selected from Chapter 111 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics) may satisfy the additional mathematics credit.

(3) Science--three credits. One credit must consist of Biology or a comparable AP or IB biology course.

(A) One credit must be selected from the following laboratory-based courses:

(i) Integrated Physics and Chemistry;

(ii) Chemistry;

(iii) Physics;

(iv) Principles of Technology; and

(v) a comparable AP or IB chemistry or physics course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation.

(B) The additional credit may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following laboratory-based courses:

(i) Chemistry;

(ii) Physics;

(iii) Aquatic Science;

(iv) Astronomy;

(v) Earth and Space Science;

(vi) Environmental Systems;

(vii) a comparable AP science course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation;

(viii) Advanced Animal Science;

(ix) Advanced Plant and Soil Science;

(x) Anatomy and Physiology;

(xi) Medical Microbiology;

(xii) Pathophysiology;

(xiii) Food Science;

(xiv) Forensic Science;

(xv) Biotechnology I;

(xvi) Biotechnology II;

(xvii) Principles of Technology;

(xviii) Scientific Research and Design;

(xix) Engineering Design and Problem Solving;

(xx) Engineering Science;

(xxi) pursuant to the TEC, §28.025(b-5), after the successful completion of physics, a science course endorsed by an institution of higher education as a course for which the institution would award course credit or as a prerequisite for a course for which the institution would award course credit. The TEA shall maintain a current list of courses offered under this clause;

(xxii) a locally developed science course or other activity, including an apprenticeship or training hours needed to obtain an industry-recognized credential or certificate that is developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.002(g-1); and

(xxiii) one credit of a two-credit IB science course selected from Chapter 112 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science).

(C) Credit may not be earned for both physics and Principles of Technology to satisfy science credit requirements.

(4) Social studies--three credits. Two of the credits must consist of United States History Studies Since 1877 (one credit), United States Government (one-half credit), and Economics with Emphasis on the Free Enterprise System and Its Benefits (one-half credit). The additional credit may be selected from the following courses:

(A) World History Studies; or

(B) World Geography Studies; or

(C) a comparable AP or IB world history or world geography course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation.

(5) Languages other than English (LOTE)--two credits.

(A) The credits may be selected from the following:

(i) any two levels in the same language, including comparable AP or IB language courses that do not count toward another credit required for graduation; or

(ii) two credits in computer programming languages, including computer coding, to be selected from Computer Science I, II, and III, AP Computer Science Principles, AP Computer Science A, IB Computer Science Standard Level, and IB Computer Science Higher Level.

(B) A single two-credit IB LOTE course may only satisfy one LOTE requirement.

(C) If a student, in completing the first credit of LOTE, demonstrates that the student is unlikely to be able to complete the second credit, the student may substitute another appropriate course as follows:

(i) Special Topics in Language and Culture;

(ii) World History Studies or World Geography Studies for a student who is not required to complete both by the local district;

(iii) another credit selected from Chapter 114 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English); or

(iv) computer programming languages, including computer coding.

(D) The determination regarding a student's ability to complete the second credit of LOTE must be agreed to by:

(i) the teacher of the first LOTE credit course or another LOTE teacher designated by the school district, the principal or designee, and the student's parent or person standing in parental relation;

(ii) the student's admission, review, and dismissal (ARD) committee if the student receives special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A; or

(iii) the committee established for the student under Section 504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 United States Code, Section 794) if the student does not receive special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A, but is covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

(E) A student, who due to a disability, is unable to complete two credits in the same language in a language other than English, may substitute a combination of two credits that are not being used to satisfy another specific graduation requirement selected from English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies or two credits in career and technical education or technology applications for the LOTE credit requirements. The determination regarding a student's ability to complete the LOTE credit requirements will be made by:

(i) the student's ARD committee if the student receives special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A; or

(ii) the committee established for the student under Section 504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 United States Code, Section 794) if the student does not receive special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A, but is covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.

(F) A student who successfully completes a dual language immersion/two-way or dual language immersion/one-way program in accordance with §89.1210(d)(3) and (4) of this title (relating to Program Content and Design), §89.1227 of this title (relating to Minimum Requirements for Dual Language Immersion Program Model), and §89.1228 of this title (relating to Two-Way Dual Language Immersion Program Model Implementation) at an elementary school may satisfy one credit of the two credits required in a language other than English.

(i) To successfully complete a dual language immersion program, a student must:

(I) have participated in a dual language immersion program for at least five consecutive school years;

(II) achieve high levels of academic competence as demonstrated by performance of meets or masters grade level on the State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR®) in English or Spanish, as applicable; and

(III) achieve proficiency in both English and a language other than English as demonstrated by scores of proficient or higher in the reading and speaking domains on language proficiency or achievement tests in both languages.

(ii) The second credit of a language other than English must be in the same language as the successfully completed dual language immersion program.

(6) Physical education--one credit.

(A) The required credit may be selected from any combination of the following one-half to one credit courses:

(i) Foundations of Personal Fitness;

(ii) Adventure/Outdoor Education;

(iii) Aerobic Activities; and

(iv) Team or Individual Sports.

(B) In accordance with local district policy, the required credit may be earned through completion of any Texas essential knowledge and skills-based course that meets the requirement in subparagraph (E) of this paragraph for 100 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity per five-day school week and that is not being used to satisfy another specific graduation requirement.

(C) In accordance with local district policy, credit for any of the courses listed in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph may be earned through participation in the following activities:

(i) Athletics;

(ii) Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC); and

(iii) appropriate private or commercially sponsored physical activity programs conducted on or off campus. The district must apply to the commissioner of education for approval of such programs, which may be substituted for state graduation credit in physical education. Such approval may be granted under the following conditions.

(I) Olympic-level participation and/or competition includes a minimum of 15 hours per week of highly intensive, professional, supervised training. The training facility, instructors, and the activities involved in the program must be certified by the superintendent to be of exceptional quality. Students qualifying and participating at this level may be dismissed from school one hour per day. Students dismissed may not miss any class other than physical education.

(II) Private or commercially sponsored physical activities include those certified by the superintendent to be of high quality and well supervised by appropriately trained instructors. Student participation of at least five hours per week must be required. Students certified to participate at this level may not be dismissed from any part of the regular school day.

(D) In accordance with local district policy, up to one credit for any one of the courses listed in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph may be earned through participation in any of the following activities:

(i) Drill Team;

(ii) Marching Band; and

(iii) Cheerleading.

(E) All substitution activities allowed in subparagraphs (B)-(D) of this paragraph must include at least 100 minutes per five-day school week of moderate to vigorous physical activity.

(F) Credit may not be earned more than once for any course identified in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. No more than four substitution credits may be earned through any combination of substitutions allowed in subparagraphs (B)-(D) of this paragraph.

(G) A student who is unable to participate in physical activity due to disability or illness may substitute an academic elective credit (English language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies) or a course that is offered for credit as provided by the TEC, §28.002(g-1), for the physical education credit requirement. The determination regarding a student's ability to participate in physical activity will be made by:

(i) the student's ARD committee if the student receives special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A;

(ii) the committee established for the student under Section 504, Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 United States Code, Section 794) if the student does not receive special education services under the TEC, Chapter 29, Subchapter A, but is covered by the Rehabilitation Act of 1973; or

(iii) a committee established by the school district of persons with appropriate knowledge regarding the student if each of the committees described by clauses (i) and (ii) of this subparagraph is inapplicable. This committee shall follow the same procedures required of an ARD or a Section 504 committee.

(7) Fine arts--one credit.

(A) The credit may be selected from the following courses subject to prerequisite requirements:

(i) Art, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(ii) Dance, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(iii) Music, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(iv) Music Studies;

(v) Theatre, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(vi) Musical Theatre, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(vii) Technical Theatre, Level I, II, III, or IV;

(viii) IB Film Standard or Higher Level;

(ix) Floral Design;

(x) Digital Art and Animation; and

(xi) 3-D Modeling and Animation.

(B) In accordance with local district policy, credit may be earned through participation in a community-based fine arts program not provided by the school district in which the student is enrolled. The district must apply to the commissioner of education for approval of such programs, which may be substituted for state graduation credit in fine arts. Approval may be granted if the fine arts program provides instruction in the essential knowledge and skills identified for a fine arts course as defined by Chapter 117, Subchapter C, of this title (relating to High School, Adopted 2013).

(c) Elective courses--five credits. The credits must be selected from the list of courses specified in §74.11(g) or (h) of this title (relating to High School Graduation Requirements) or from a locally developed course or activity developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.002(g-1), for which a student may receive credit and that does not satisfy a specific course requirement.

(d) Substitutions. No substitutions are allowed in the Foundation High School Program, except as specified in this chapter.

§74.13.Endorsements.

(a) A student shall specify in writing an endorsement the student intends to earn upon entering Grade 9.

(b) A district shall permit a student to enroll in courses under more than one endorsement before the student's junior year and to choose, at any time, to earn an endorsement other than the endorsement the student previously indicated. This section does not entitle a student to remain enrolled to earn more than 26 credits.

(c) A student must earn at least 26 credits to earn an endorsement.

(d) A school district may define advanced courses and determine a coherent sequence of courses for an endorsement area, provided that prerequisites in Chapters 110- 117, 126, 127, and 130 of this title are followed.

(e) To earn an endorsement a student must demonstrate proficiency in the following.

(1) The curriculum requirements for the Foundation High School Program as defined by §74.12 of this title (relating to Foundation High School Program).

(2) A fourth credit in mathematics that may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following courses:

(A) Algebra II;

(B) Precalculus;

(C) Advanced Quantitative Reasoning;

(D) Independent Study in Mathematics;

(E) Discrete Mathematics for Problem Solving;

(F) Algebraic Reasoning;

(G) Statistics;

(H) a comparable Advanced Placement (AP) mathematics course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation;

(I) AP Computer Science A;

(J) International Baccalaureate (IB) Computer Science Higher Level;

(K) Engineering Mathematics;

(L) Statistics and Business Decision Making;

(M) Mathematics for Medical Professionals;

(N) Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science;

(O) pursuant to the Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.025(b-5), after the successful completion of Algebra II, a mathematics course endorsed by an institution of higher education as a course for which the institution would award course credit or as a prerequisite for a course for which the institution would award course credit. The Texas Education Agency (TEA) shall maintain a current list of courses offered under this subparagraph; and

(P) after the successful completion of Algebra I and Geometry, a locally developed mathematics course or other activity, including an apprenticeship or training hours needed to obtain an industry-recognized credential or certificate that is developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.002(g-1).

(3) A student may complete a course listed in paragraph (2) of this subsection before or after completing a course listed in §74.12(b)(2)(A) of this title.

(4) The fourth mathematics credit may be a college preparatory mathematics course that is developed and offered pursuant to the TEC, §28.014.

(5) The fourth mathematics credit may be satisfied with one credit of a two-credit IB mathematics course selected from Chapter 111 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics) that does not count toward another credit required for graduation.

(6) An additional credit in science that may be selected from one full credit or a combination of two half credits from two different courses, subject to prerequisite requirements, from the following courses:

(A) Chemistry;

(B) Physics;

(C) Aquatic Science;

(D) Astronomy;

(E) Earth and Space Science;

(F) Environmental Systems;

(G) a comparable AP science course that does not count toward another credit required for graduation;

(H) Advanced Animal Science;

(I) Advanced Plant and Soil Science;

(J) Anatomy and Physiology;

(K) Medical Microbiology;

(L) Pathophysiology;

(M) Food Science;

(N) Forensic Science;

(O) Biotechnology I;

(P) Biotechnology II;

(Q) Principles of Technology;

(R) Scientific Research and Design;

(S) Engineering Design and Problem Solving;

(T) Engineering Science;

(U) pursuant to the TEC, §28.025(b-5), after the successful completion of physics, a science course endorsed by an institution of higher education as a course for which the institution would award course credit or as a prerequisite for a course for which the institution would award course credit. The TEA shall maintain a current list of courses offered under this subparagraph;

(V) a locally developed science course or other activity, including an apprenticeship or training hours needed to obtain an industry-recognized credential or certificate that is developed pursuant to the TEC, §28.002(g-1);

(W) pursuant to the TEC, §28.025(c-3), a student pursuing an arts and humanities endorsement who has the written permission of the student's parent or a person standing in parental relation to the student may substitute a course that is not being used to satisfy another specific graduation requirement selected from:

(i) Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading);

(ii) Chapter 113 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Social Studies);

(iii) Chapter 114 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Languages Other Than English); or

(iv) Chapter 117 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Fine Arts); and

(X) credit may not be earned for both physics and Principles of Technology to satisfy science credit requirements.

(Y) The fourth science credit may be satisfied with one credit of a two-credit IB science course selected from Chapter 112 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Science) that does not count toward another credit required for graduation.

(7) Two additional elective credits that may be selected from the list of courses specified in §74.11(g) or (h) of this title (relating to High School Graduation Requirements).

(f) A student may earn any of the following endorsements.

(1) Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). A student may earn a STEM endorsement by completing the requirements specified in subsection (e) of this section, including Algebra II, chemistry, and physics or Principles of Technology and:

(A) a coherent sequence of courses for four or more credits in career and technical education (CTE) that consists of at least two courses in the same career cluster and at least one advanced CTE course. The courses may be selected from Chapter 130 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career and Technical Education), Chapter 127 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Career Development), or CTE innovative courses approved by the commissioner of education. The final course in the sequence must be selected from Chapter 130, Subchapter O, of this title (relating to Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) or Career Preparation I or II and Project-Based Research in Chapter 127, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to High School), if the course addresses a STEM-related field; or

(B) a coherent sequence of four credits in computer science selected from the following:

(i) Fundamentals of Computer Science; or

(ii) Computer Science I; or

(iii) Computer Science II; or

(iv) Computer Science III; or

(v) Digital Forensics; or

(vi) Discrete Mathematics for Computer Science; or

(vii) Game Programming and Design; or

(viii) Mobile Application Development; or

(ix) Robotics Programming and Design; or

(x) Independent Studies in Technology Applications; or

(xi) AP Computer Science A; or

(xii) AP Computer Science Principles; or

(xiii) IB Computer Science, Standard Level; or

(xiv) IB Computer Science, Higher Level; or

(C) three credits in mathematics by successfully completing Algebra II and two additional mathematics courses for which Algebra II is a prerequisite by selecting courses from subsection (e)(2) of this section; or

(D) four credits in science by successfully completing chemistry, physics, and two additional science courses by selecting courses from subsection (e)(6) of this section; or

(E) a coherent sequence of four courses in cybersecurity to consist of Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone and two additional courses to be selected from the following:

(i) AP Computer Science A; or

(ii) Computer Science I; or

(iii) AP Computer Science Principles; or

(iv) Digital Forensics; or

(v) Computer Maintenance; or

(vi) Internetworking Technologies I; or

(vii) Internetworking Technologies II; or

(viii) Networking; or

(F) in addition to Algebra II, chemistry, and physics, a coherent sequence of three additional credits from no more than two of the categories or disciplines represented by subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of this paragraph.

(2) Business and industry. A student may earn a business and industry endorsement by completing the requirements specified in subsection (e) of this section and:

(A) a coherent sequence of courses for four or more credits in CTE that consists of at least two courses in the same career cluster and at least one advanced CTE course. The courses may be selected from Chapter 130 of this title, Chapter 127 of this title, or CTE innovative courses approved by the commissioner. The final course in the sequence must be selected from one of the following:

(i) Chapter 130, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Agriculture, Food, and Natural Resources); or

(ii) Chapter 130, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Architecture and Construction); or

(iii) Chapter 130, Subchapter C, of this title (relating to Arts, Audio/Video Technology, and Communications); or

(iv) Chapter 130, Subchapter D, of this title (relating to Business Management and Administration); or

(v) Chapter 130, Subchapter F, of this title (relating to Finance); or

(vi) Chapter 130, Subchapter I, of this title (relating to Hospitality and Tourism); or

(vii) Chapter 130, Subchapter K, of this title (relating to Information Technology); or

(viii) Chapter 130, Subchapter M, of this title (relating to Manufacturing); or

(ix) Chapter 130, Subchapter N, of this title (relating to Marketing); or

(x) Chapter 130, Subchapter P, of this title (relating to Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics); or

(xi) Career Preparation I or II and Project-Based Research in Chapter 127, Subchapter B, of this title if the course addresses a career from a field listed in clauses (i)-(x) of this subparagraph; or

(B) four English credits by selecting courses from Chapter 110 of this title to include three levels in one of the following areas:

(i) public speaking; or

(ii) debate; or

(iii) advanced broadcast journalism; or

(iv) advanced journalism: newspaper; or

(v) advanced journalism: yearbook; or

(vi) advanced journalism: literary magazine; or

(C) four technology applications credits by selecting from the following:

(i) Digital Design and Media Production; or

(ii) Digital Art and Animation; or

(iii) 3-D Modeling and Animation; or

(iv) Digital Communications in the 21st Century; or

(v) Digital Video and Audio Design; or

(vi) Web Communications; or

(vii) Web Design; or

(viii) Web Game Development; or

(ix) Independent Study in Evolving/Emerging Technologies; or

(D) a coherent sequence of four credits from subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of this paragraph.

(3) Public services. A student may earn a public services endorsement by completing the requirements specified in subsection (e) of this section and:

(A) a coherent sequence of courses for four or more credits in CTE that consists of at least two courses in the same career cluster and at least one advanced CTE course. The courses may be selected from Chapter 130 of this title, Chapter 127 of this title, or CTE innovative courses approved by the commissioner. The final course in the sequence must be selected from one of the following:

(i) Chapter 130, Subchapter E, of this title (relating to Education and Training); or

(ii) Chapter 130, Subchapter G, of this title (relating to Government and Public Administration); or

(iii) Chapter 130, Subchapter H, of this title (relating to Health Science); or

(iv) Chapter 130, Subchapter J, of this title (relating to Human Services); or

(v) Chapter 130, Subchapter L, of this title (relating to Law, Public Safety, Corrections, and Security); or

(vi) Career Preparation I or II and Project-Based Research in Chapter 127, Subchapter B, of this title if the course addresses a field from a cluster listed in clauses (i)-(v) of this subparagraph; or

(B) four courses in Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC).

(4) Arts and humanities. A student may earn an arts and humanities endorsement by completing the requirements specified in subsection (e) of this section and:

(A) five social studies credits by selecting courses from Chapter 113 of this title; or

(B) four levels of the same language in a language other than English by selecting courses in accordance with Chapter 114 of this title, which may include Advanced Language for Career Applications; or

(C) two levels of the same language in a language other than English and two levels of a different language in a language other than English by selecting courses in accordance with Chapter 114 of this title; or

(D) four levels of American sign language by selecting courses in accordance with Chapter 114 of this title; or

(E) a coherent sequence of four credits by selecting courses from one or two categories or disciplines in fine arts from Chapter 117 of this title or innovative courses approved by the commissioner; or

(F) four English credits by selecting from the following:

(i) English IV; or

(ii) Independent Study in English; or

(iii) Literary Genres; or

(iv) Creative Writing; or

(v) Research and Technical Writing; or

(vi) Humanities; or

(vii) Communication Applications; or

(viii) AP English Literature and Composition; or

(ix) AP English Language and Composition; or

(x) IB Language Studies A: Language and Literature Standard Level; or

(xi) IB Language Studies A: Language and Literature Higher Level; or

(xii) IB Language Studies A: Literature Standard Level; or

(xiii) IB Language Studies A: Literature Higher Level; or

(xiv) IB Literature and Performance Standard Level.

(5) Multidisciplinary studies. A student may earn a multidisciplinary studies endorsement by completing the requirements specified in subsection (e) of this section and:

(A) four advanced courses that prepare a student to enter the workforce successfully or postsecondary education without remediation from within one endorsement area or among endorsement areas that are not in a coherent sequence; or

(B) four credits in each of the four foundation subject areas to include chemistry and/or physics and English IV or a comparable AP or IB English course; or

(C) four credits in Advanced Placement, International Baccalaureate, or dual credit selected from English, mathematics, science, social studies, economics, languages other than English, or fine arts.

(g) A course completed as part of the set of four courses needed to satisfy an endorsement requirement may also satisfy a requirement under §74.12(b) and (c) of this title and subsection (e)(2), (4), (5), and (6) of this section, including an elective requirement. The same course may count as part of the set of four courses for more than one endorsement.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902199

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: February 22, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 110. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts amendments to §§110.1-110.7, 110.21-110.24, and 110.36-110.39 and the repeal of §§110.10-110.20, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for English language arts and reading. The amendments to §§110.2-110.7, 110.22-110.24, and 110.36-110.39 are adopted with changes to the text as published in the May 3, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 2217) and will be republished. The amendments to §110.1 and §110.21 and the repeals of §§110.10-110.20 are adopted without changes to the text as published in the May 3, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 2217) and will not be republished. The adopted amendments make technical adjustments, including the correction of inconsistencies that have been identified. The adopted repeals remove the TEKS adopted to be effective in 2009 for elementary and middle school English language arts and reading and related implementation language that will be superseded by new 19 TAC §§110.1-110.7 and 110.21-110.24 beginning with the 2019-2020 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. In 2006, the 79th Texas Legislature required Texas Education Agency (TEA) and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to establish vertical teams composed of public school educators and faculty from institutions of higher education to develop CCRS in the areas of English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. The THECB adopted the CCRS in January 2008. The commissioner of education approved the CCRS, and the SBOE incorporated them into the TEKS as follows: English language arts and reading TEKS in 2008; mathematics and science TEKS in 2009; and social studies TEKS in 2010. In 2018, the THECB adopted updates to the CCRS for English/language arts and mathematics. The adopted revisions to 19 TAC Chapter 110 and Chapter 128 include the addition of student expectations to the TEKS to ensure complete alignment with the updated CCRS.

In 2017, the SBOE adopted revisions to the English language arts and reading TEKS. The revised TEKS for elementary and middle school are scheduled to be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year, and the revised TEKS for high school are scheduled to be implemented beginning with the 2020-2021 school year, depending on the availability of funding for instructional materials. Since the time of adoption, inconsistencies and necessary technical adjustments in the TEKS have been identified. The adopted amendments make technical adjustments and clarify student expectations.

Additionally, with the implementation of the revised English language arts and reading TEKS for elementary and middle school scheduled for the 2019-2020 school year, the current TEKS in 19 TAC §§110.10-110.20 are no longer needed and may now be repealed.

The following changes to Chapter 110, Subchapters A-C, were made since published as.

Subchapter A, Elementary

§110.2

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(G) was struck.

§110.3

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§110.4

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§110.5

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§110.6

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to insert "character tags" after "such as."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§110.7

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to insert "character tags" after "such as."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to read, "italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and punctuation marks, including quotation marks in dialogue and commas in compound and complex sentences."

Subchapter B, Middle School

§110.22

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

§110.23

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

§110.24

The student expectation in subsection (b)(5)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(7)(C) was amended to add the word "foreshadowing" between the words "flashbacks" and "subplots."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(D)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(B) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

Subchapter C, High School

§110.36

The student expectation in subsection (c)(4)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(5)(K) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(6)(C) was amended to add the word "foreshadowing" between the words "flashbacks" and "subplots."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(H) was struck.

§110.37

The student expectation in subsection (c)(4)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(5)(K) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(H) was struck.

§110.38

The student expectation in subsection (c)(4)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(5)(K) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(H) was struck.

§110.39

The student expectation in subsection (c)(4)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(5)(K) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(H) was struck.

The SBOE approved the amendments and repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 5, 2019 meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its June 14, 2019 meeting.

In accordance with the Texas Education Code, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the amendments and repeals for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year. The earlier effective date will enable districts to finish preparing for the implementation of the revised English language arts and reading TEKS. The effective date of the amendments and repeals is August 1, 2019.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. The public comment period on the proposal began May 3, 2019, and ended June 7, 2019. The SBOE also provided an opportunity for registered oral and written comments at its June 2019 meeting in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. Following is a summary of the public comments received on the proposal and the responses.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would be appreciated if teachers were allowed to teach the TEKS instead of teaching to a standardized, multiple-choice question test.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the rulemaking.

Comment. Dallas Independent School District (ISD) and three administrators stated that it is not necessary to add "central idea" as an additional term for "thesis" in student expectation (11)(B) in language arts Grades 6-8. The commenters recommended that terminology can be clarified in the TEKS Guides.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the additional language is not necessary and took action to strike "central or" from the phrase "central or controlling idea."

Comment. Two administrators expressed opposition to the revision to add new student expectation (5)(K) in English I-IV regarding diverse texts and varied perspectives.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of the student expectation is not necessary and took action to strike new subsection (c)(5)(K) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One parent expressed concern that the wording in new student expectation (5)(K) for English I-IV seems vague. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "explain the ways that diverse texts provide the reader with different perspectives on the same topic."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike new subsection (c)(5)(K) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One parent expressed concern regarding the wording for new student expectation (8)(H) for English I-IV. The commenter asked why students would be limited to only diverse texts and suggested amending the student expectation to read, "discuss a text's artistic qualities, with a focus on diverse texts."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording for the new student expectation is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike new subsection (c)(8)(H) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed concern that "artistic quality of diverse texts" in new student expectation (8)(H) in English I-IV is unclear and not aligned with the "aesthetic qualities and values of diverse texts" mentioned in the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) II.D.3. The commenter added that the updated CCRS standards are already in alignment with the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the 2017 reading language arts TEKS are aligned to the revised CCRS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike new subsection (c)(8)(H) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One administrator asked why there was no grandfather clause included with the CCRS to help preserve repeated changes to the TEKS in order to align with the CCRS standards.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the rulemaking.

Comment. Dallas ISD and three administrators stated that the addition of "diverse texts" in student expectation (8)(H) in English I-IV is redundant because diverse texts are already required in the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of the student expectation is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike new subsection (c)(8)(H) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One administrator questioned the proposal to remove foreshadowing from student expectation (6)(C) in English I. The commenter stated that foreshadowing is a key literary element and an effective entry point into nonlinear plot development.

Response. The SBOE agrees that foreshadowing can be an entry point to nonlinear plot development. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §110.24(b)(7)(C) and §110.36(c)(6)(C) to reinsert foreshadowing.

Comment. One teacher stated that districts should be partially compensated for costs associated with implementing the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the rulemaking.

Comment. An administrator, a community member, and 22 teachers expressed concern that the changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS are significant in content and not merely technical changes.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the some of the changes were not merely technical changes. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. An administrator, a community member, and 13 teachers stated that the changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS are unnecessary to achieve quality instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

Response. The SBOE agrees that several changes were unnecessary to achieve quality instruction in reading language arts. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Four teachers and two administrators stated that the revisions could be addressed in the TEKS Guides that the TEA is developing.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and provides the following clarification. The TEKS Guide is designed as a resource for teachers and is not intended to replace the SBOE's authority to adopt content standards.

Comment. One teacher stated that there was already a public comment period for people to provide comments on the revised TEKS for reading language arts when they were considered for adoption by the SBOE in 2017.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the rulemaking.

Comment. Two administrators stated that the revisions do not honor the work of the TEKS review committees for reading language arts that drafted the revised TEKS that were adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the revisions conflict with the work of the TEKS review committees; however, the SBOE determined that not all changes to the reading language arts TEKS were necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher stated that the new reading language arts TEKS make more sense but need to be reviewed and revised by educators for vertical alignment.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that an additional vertical alignment review of the reading language arts TEKS is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE approved additional changes to the reading language arts TEKS.

Comment. One administrator asked what changes are being made to the reading language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. revisions to the reading language arts TEKS approved for first reading and filing authorization were filed with the Texas Register and posted on the Texas Secretary of State and TEA websites. At the June 2019 meeting, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher and one administrator expressed concern that the changes for the reading language arts TEKS are not clear in places.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes were unclear; however, the SBOE determined that not all changes to the reading language arts TEKS were necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. One administrator asked where the revised reading language arts TEKS are located.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The English reading language arts TEKS are codified in 19 Texas Administrative Code Chapter 110. revisions to the reading/language arts TEKS approved for first reading and filing authorization were filed with the Texas Register and posted on the Texas Secretary of State and TEA websites. Once effective, the English reading language arts TEKS as amended will replace the revised reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017 in the Texas Administrative Code.

Comment. One teacher stated that the manner in which the changes to the revised TEKS have been creates a lack of trust in the review process.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the changes to the reading language arts TEKS were handled in a similar manner to other rule changes. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One parent expressed concern regarding students' understanding of the TEKS and whether students will be prepared for college curriculum and the SAT, ACT, and Texas Success Initiative tests.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that students� understanding of the TEKS or performance on college readiness examinations would not be negatively impacted. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. Three teachers expressed concern that the timing of the changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS will create confusion for teachers and negatively impact students.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the timing of the changes might create confusion. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that adding a significant number of student expectations goes against the original intent to streamline of the TEKS review committee that wrote the TEKS adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the charge of the 2016 TEKS review committees was to streamline the reading language arts TEKS, but the SBOE disagrees that the proposal called for the addition of a significant number of student expectations. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the revisions are described as being mostly technical in nature when in fact some are significant content changes and others are redundant.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the some of the changes were not merely technical changes. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed concern that the revisions disregard the SBOE's process for TEKS revisions because the changes are coming only three months before the reading language arts TEKS are scheduled to be implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the revisions are outside the SBOE process for revisions to the TEKS. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator asked when the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS would be released.

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. The revised reading language arts TEKS will be posted on the TEA website after being filed as adopted with the Texas Register. Once effective, the revised reading language arts TEKS will then be available in the Texas Administrative Code.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for adding autobiography and biography to the Grade 3 reading/language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that it was necessary to add literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike autobiography and biography from §110.5(b)(9)(G).

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that although past, present, and future verbs are expected to be taught, the suffixes -ed and -ing are not listed in the revised TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the suffix -ed is addressed in §110.3(b)(2)(B) and (3)(B) and both suffixes -ed and -ing are addressed in §110.4(b)(2)(B) and (C). No changes to these student expectations were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with using the term "argumentative" in Grade 3. The commenter stated that Grade 3 students understand the term "persuade," but the term "argumentative" is too difficult for students at this grade level.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the term "argumentative" is appropriately included in the reading language arts TEKS for Grade 3.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with using the term "hyperbole" in §110.5(b)(10)(G). The commenter stated that the concept was addressed in Grade 6 in the 2009 reading language arts TEKS and moving hyperbole down to Grade 3 will confuse students.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §110.5(b)(10)(G) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that the terms "suffix" and "prefix" are not included in the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS for Grade 3.

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. The term "prefix" is included in §110.5(b)(2)(A)(v) and §110.5(b)(2)(B)(vi). The term "suffix" is included in §110.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) and §110.5(b)(2)(B)(vii).

Comment. An administrator expressed concern that §110.5(b)(9)(B) states only that students must explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements "in a variety of poems." The commenter asked whether students would be expected to know humorous, narrative, or haiku poems.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Section 110.5(b)(9)(B) allows districts and teachers the flexibility to identify the variety of poems that may be taught.

Comment. An administrator expressed concern that §110.5(b)(9)(B) states only that students must explain "sound devices." The commenter stated it is unclear whether students are expected to know alliteration, onomatopoeia, or repetition.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of specific sound devices is not necessary. Onomatopoeia is listed as an example of a sound device in §110.5(b)(10)(B). Alliteration and repetition are introduced in §110.4(b)(9)(B).

Comment. Texas Association of School Administrators (TASA), ten teachers, four administrators, and two parents stated that the revised reading language arts TEKS were finalized over a year ago and any issues should have been identified by now, not a few months before the TEKS are scheduled to be implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that changes to correct or clarify language in the TEKS were necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Four teachers and one parent stated that the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS should not be approved. The commenters added that implementing the revisions will cost districts a significant amount of money.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that all amendments should be rejected. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD, 19 teachers, 14 administrators, and 1 parent expressed concern that districts have gone to considerable effort and financial commitment to adopt approved instructional materials that will no longer align with the TEKS for reading language arts if the revisions are implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the changes to the reading language arts TEKS were addressed in many instructional materials approved by the board. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that districts would have to scramble to find more instructional materials to address the revisions to the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the changes to the reading language arts TEKS were addressed in many instructional materials approved by the board. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher stated that adding literary nonfiction to the revised TEKS impacts the content of the TEKS and is not a technical edit.

Response. The SBOE agrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is a technical edit. In response to this and other comments, took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Dallas ISD, one teacher, and six administrators stated that the revisions discount the work of the educators who revised the TEKS in 2017 and decided not to call out specific subgenres, including literary nonfiction.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS discounts the work of the TEKS review committees. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Two teachers and three administrators stated that adding literary nonfiction to the standards is unnecessary because it can easily be taught without adjusting the TEKS and the cost of updating materials outweighs any benefit.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Seven administrators and two teachers stated adding literary nonfiction is unnecessary because the genre can be covered under existing genres.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One administrator stated that adding the term literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS for State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR®) testing purposes is unnecessary, and TEA can make STAAR® work without the addition of literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading/language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher and four administrators suggested that literary nonfiction could be addressed in the TEKS Guides without impacting instructional materials.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and provides the following clarification. The TEKS Guide is designed as a resource for teachers and is not intended to replace the SBOE's authority to adopt content standards.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that labeling biographies as literary nonfiction is misleading because biographies are informational in nature and may incorporate literary craft. The commenter added that the current interpretation of literary nonfiction in Texas is contrary to the way it is defined by agreed upon experts and that literary nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of biography is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add biography and literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposal to add literary nonfiction as it is not a recognized genre. The commenter stated that the generally accepted genres are functional, narrative, informational, persuasive, poetic, and hybrids.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the progression of the literary nonfiction across grade levels is limiting because the student expectations in Grades 2-5 focus on biographies and autobiographies, while the student expectations in Grades 6-8 focus on journals and diaries.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that the revisions for the reading language arts TEKS would list personal narratives under two different genres, literary nonfiction and the literary genre, which may confuse teachers. The commenter recommended aligning the composition strand with the multiple genres strand by deleting personal narratives as an example of literary text from subsection (b)(12)(A) in Grades 2-5 and subsection (b)(11)(A) in Grades 7-8 and adding a new student expectation to read "compose multi-paragraph literary nonfiction texts using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the recommended change is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for adding "main idea" to the Grade 3 reading language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the addition of "main idea" is necessary and took action to strike "main idea" from §110.5(b)(6)(G).

Comment. One administrator stated that the TEKS adopted in 2009 clarified that "main idea" is used primarily in informational texts. The commenter expressed concern that generalizing the term for all genres as would be confusing for teachers.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of "main idea" in the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§110.4-110.7, subsection (b)(5)(G) in §§110.22-110.24, and subsection (c)(4)(G) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One teacher stated that changing the term "central idea" to the term "main idea" impacts the content of the TEKS and is not a technical edit.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the proposal did not recommend changing the term "central idea" to the term "main idea." In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§110.4-110.7, subsection (b)(5)(G) in §§110.22-110.24, and subsection (c)(4)(G) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. Dallas ISD and one administrator stated that the addition of "main idea" in the comprehension strand in subsection (b)(6)(G) for Grades 2-5, subsection (b)(5)(G) for Grades 6-8, and subsection (c)(4)(G) for English I-IV is not essential because "main idea" is also a key idea.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of "main idea" is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§110.4-110.7, subsection (b)(5)(G) in §§110.22-110.24, and subsection (c)(4)(G) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. One administrator stated that "main idea" is not appropriate terminology for all genres. The commenter explained that the current term used in the revised TEKS key ideas is more appropriate terminology to apply to all texts with more than one main idea, message, or theme.

Response. The SBOE agrees the addition of "main idea" is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§110.4-110.7, subsection (b)(5)(G) in §§110.22-110.24, and subsection (c)(4)(G) in §§110.36-110.39.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed opposition to the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS and asked the SBOE to not approve the changes.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that some changes were necessary. In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. TASA and one administrator expressed opposition to the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS and stated that the time and effort used to develop a final set of standards that are reflective of current research should be honored.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that some changes were necessary. In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that the revisions for the reading language arts TEKS would list poetry under two different genres, which may confuse teachers. The commenter suggested adding a student expectation on poetry in the composition strand to read "compose poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to the composition strand were needed. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. Nine teachers, one administrator, and one community member expressed concern that districts would not have enough time to incorporate the revisions into their curriculum resources before the revised TEKS for reading language arts are scheduled to be implemented in the 2019-2020 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that districts need time to incorporate changes into curriculum resources. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Nine teachers, seven administrators, and two parents expressed concern with the revisions because districts have spent a significant amount of time and money training teachers and creating curriculum resources to prepare for the revised TEKS that will be implemented in the 2019-2020 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the changes could impact teacher training and curriculum resources needed to prepare for implementation of the revised reading language arts TEKS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. A community member, 22 teachers, and 7 administrators expressed concern that curriculum resources that the district developed will no longer align with the TEKS for reading language arts if the revisions are implemented.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the changes might impact curriculum resources for the revised reading language arts TEKS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Two teachers and one administrator expressed concern that many teachers have already attended trainings on the revised TEKS for reading language arts adopted in 2017.

Response. This comment is outside of the scope of the rulemaking.

Comment. Four teachers and one administrator stated that proposing revisions at this time disregards the hours hardworking teachers have already spent training and preparing for the implementation of the revised TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that many teachers have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the revisions to the reading language arts TEKS are unnecessary and would negatively impact staff training.

Response. The SBOE agrees that many teachers have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. TASA and one administrator stated that the revisions are a disservice to stakeholders because stakeholders have spent much time and money developing professional development materials.

Response. The SBOE agrees that stakeholders have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§110.1 - 110.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§110.2.English Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) blending spoken onsets and rimes to form simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words;

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word; and

(x) segmenting spoken one-syllable words into individual phonemes;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode, including VC, CVC, CCVC, and CVCC words;

(iii) recognizing that new words are created when letters are changed, added, or deleted such as it - pit - tip - tap; and

(iv) identifying and reading at least 25 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with VC, CVC, and CCVC;

(ii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iii) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs;

(iii) singular and plural nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and name;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.3.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same spoken onset or initial sound;

(iii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable words;

(iv) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed;

(v) blending spoken phonemes to form one-syllable words, including initial and/or final consonant blends;

(vi) manipulating phonemes within base words; and

(vii) segmenting spoken one-syllable words of three to five phonemes into individual phonemes, including words with initial and/or final consonant blends;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words in isolation and in context by applying common letter sound correspondences;

(ii) decoding words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) decoding words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including vowel digraphs and diphthongs; and r-controlled syllables;

(iv) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words and contractions;

(v) decoding words with inflectional endings, including -ed, -s, and -es; and

(vi) identifying and reading at least 100 high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with closed syllables, open syllables, VCe syllables, vowel teams, and r-controlled syllables;

(ii) spelling words with initial and final consonant blends, digraphs, and trigraphs;

(iii) spelling words using sound-spelling patterns; and

(iv) spelling high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with the affixes -s, -ed, and -ing; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences and the pronoun "I";

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative, exclamatory, and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.4.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) distinguishing between long and short vowel sounds in one-syllable and multi-syllable words;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed; and

(iv) manipulating phonemes within base words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with short, long, or variant vowels, trigraphs, and blends;

(ii) decoding words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iv) decoding compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) decoding words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling one-syllable and multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with silent letters such as knife and gnat;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns, including words with double consonants in the middle of the word; and

(vi) spelling words with prefixes, including un-, re-, and dis-, and inflectional endings, including -s, -es, -ed, -ing, -er, and -est;

(D) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes un-, re-, -ly, -er, and -est (comparative and superlative), and -ion/tion/sion; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of months, days of the week, and the salutation and conclusion of a letter;

(x) end punctuation, apostrophes in contractions, and commas with items in a series and in dates;and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.5.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns such as eigh, ough, and en;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV with accent shifts;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(vi) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vii) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling compound words, contractions, and abbreviations;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VCCV, VCV, and VCCCV;

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vii) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, and -ful; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including subjective, objective, and possessive cases;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of official titles of people, holidays, and geographical names and places;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in contractions and possessives and commas in compound sentences and items in a series; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea andgenre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.6.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose andcraft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with specific orthographic patterns and rules, including regular and irregular plurals;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns such as VV;

(iv) decoding words using knowledge of prefixes;

(v) decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(vi) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling homophones;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) determine the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mis-, sub-, -ment, and -ity/ty and roots such as auto, graph, and meter; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of homophones such as reign/rain.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrastingideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including reflexive;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical periods, events, and documents; titles of books; stories and essays; and languages, races, and nationalities;

(x) punctuation marks, including apostrophes in possessives, commas in compound sentences, and quotation marks in dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.7.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(ii) decoding multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllable; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(iii) decoding words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(iv) decoding words using advanced knowledge of the influence of prefixes and suffixes on base words; and

(v) identifying and reading high-frequency words from a research-based list;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words with closed syllables; open syllables; VCe syllables; vowel teams, including digraphs and diphthongs; r-controlled syllables; and final stable syllables;

(ii) spelling words with consonant changes, including/t/ to/sh/ such as in select and selection and/k/ to/sh/ such as music and musician;

(iii) spelling multisyllabic words with multiple sound-spelling patterns;

(iv) spelling words using advanced knowledge of syllable division patterns;

(v) spelling words using knowledge of prefixes; and

(vi) spelling words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as dropping e, changing y to i, and doubling final consonants; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as trans-, super-, -ive, and -logy and roots such as geo and photo; and

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of adages and puns.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrastingideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using textevidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) past tense of irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including indefinite;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(ix) capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and punctuation marks, including quotation marks in dialogue and commas in compound and complex sentences; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules and high-frequency words; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902200

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §§110.10 - 110.16

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902202

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §§110.17 - 110.20

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902229

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §§110.21 - 110.24

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§110.22.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as mis/mit, bene, man, vac, scrib/script, and jur/jus.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronouns, including relative;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements ; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft ; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.23.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as references or acknowledgements; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses, and semicolons; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.24.English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words; and

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek and Latin roots such as ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) correct capitalization;

(vi) punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(vii) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902231

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §§110.36 - 110.39

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a) and (c); and 28.025(a).

§110.36.English Language Arts and Reading, English I (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(C) give a presentation using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as bona fide, caveat, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, bon appétit, and quid pro quo.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from two texts to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support a comprehensive response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.; and

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences the theme.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read and respond to American, British, and world literature;

(B) analyze the structure, prosody, and graphic elements such as line length and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion; and

(ii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language achieves specific purposes;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as irony and oxymoron to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as understatement and overstatement and the effect of logical fallacies such as straw man and red herring arguments.; and

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(iv) correct capitalization;

(v) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, and dashes to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(vi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as ad hominem, loaded language, and slippery slope;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.37.English Language Arts and Reading, English II (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) follow and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(C) give a formal presentation that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish among denotative, connotative, and figurative meanings of words; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as pas de deux, status quo, déjà vu, avant-garde, and coup d'état.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from multiple texts to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support an interpretive response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.; and

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot, including comparing similar themes in a variety of literary texts representing different cultures;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters, including archetypes, through historical and cultural settings and events;

(C) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole; and

(D) analyze how historical and cultural settings influence characterization, plot, and theme across texts.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read and analyze world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the effects of metrics; rhyme schemes; types of rhymes such as end, internal, slant, and eye; and other conventions in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as irony, sarcasm, and motif to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the purpose of rhetorical devices such as appeals, antithesis, parallelism, and shifts and the effects of logical fallacies.; and

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(iv) correct capitalization;

(v) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and parentheses to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(vi) correct spelling; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as incorrect premise, hasty generalizations, and either-or;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.38.English Language Arts and Reading, English III (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse when evaluating the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critiquing the impact of a speaker's use of diction and syntax;

(B) follow and give complex instructions, clarify meaning by asking pertinent questions, and respond appropriately;

(C) give a formal presentation that exhibits a logical structure, smooth transitions, accurate evidence, well-chosen details, and rhetorical devices and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team toward goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to clarify and validate understanding of multiple meanings of advanced vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to draw conclusions about nuanced meanings such as in imagery; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as ad hoc, faux pas, non sequitur, and modus operandi.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to understand key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of text types to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, annotating, and using outside sources when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate analysis of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support an analytic response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit and implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register and effective vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, significance of setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze how characters' behaviors and underlying motivations contribute to moral dilemmas that influence the plot and theme;

(C) evaluate how different literary elements shape the author's portrayal of the plot; and

(D) analyze how the historical, social, and economic context of setting(s) influences the plot, characterization, and theme.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read and analyze American literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze relationships among characteristics of poetry, including stanzas, line breaks, speaker, and sound devices in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how the relationships among dramatic elements advance the plot;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, strong supporting evidence, pertinent examples, commentary, summary, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and author's purpose;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable thesis, appeals, structure of the argument, convincing conclusion, and call to action;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze the effectiveness of characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) evaluate use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) evaluate how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) evaluate the use of literary devices such as paradox, satire, and allegory to achieve specific purposes;

(F) evaluate how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the effects of rhetorical devices and logical fallacies on the way the text is read and understood.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using strategic organizational structures appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with effective use of rhetorical devices, details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, both within and between sentences;

(D) edit drafts to demonstrate a command of standard English conventions using a style guide as appropriate; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, resumes, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure;

(E) compose literary analysis using genre characteristics and craft; and

(F) compose rhetorical analysis using genre characteristics and craft.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility, bias, and accuracy; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as post hoc-ad hoc, circular reasoning, red herring, and assumptions;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§110.39.English Language Arts and Reading, English IV (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The English language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse when evaluating the clarity and coherence of a speaker's message and critiquing the impact of a speaker's use of diction, syntax, and rhetorical strategies;

(B) follow and give complex instructions, clarify meaning by asking pertinent questions, and respond appropriately;

(C) formulate sound arguments and present using elements of classical speeches such as introduction, first and second transitions, body, conclusion, the art of persuasion, rhetorical devices, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate collaboratively, offering ideas or judgments that are purposeful in moving the team toward goals, asking relevant and insightful questions, tolerating a range of positions and ambiguity in decision making, and evaluating the work of the group based on agreed-upon criteria.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to clarify and validate understanding of multiple meanings of advanced vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to draw conclusions about nuanced meanings such as in imagery; and

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as ad nauseum, in loco parentis, laissez-faire, and caveat emptor.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(4) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to analyze key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from a variety of text types to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, annotating, and using outside sources when understanding breaks down.

(5) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate analysis of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support an evaluative response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit and implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register and purposeful vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants; and

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence.

(6) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze relationships among thematic development, characterization, point of view, significance of setting, and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) analyze how characters' behaviors and underlying motivations contribute to moral dilemmas that influence the plot and theme;

(C) critique and evaluate how complex plot structures such as subplots contribute to and advance the action; and

(D) evaluate how the historical, social, and economic context of setting(s) influences the plot, characterization, and theme.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) read and analyze British literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the effects of sound, form, figurative language, graphics, and dramatic structure in poetry across literary time periods and cultures;

(C) analyze and evaluate how the relationships among the dramatic elements advance the plot;

(D) critique and evaluate characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, effective supporting evidence, pertinent examples, commentary, summary, and conclusion; and

(ii) the relationship between organizational design and author's purpose;

(E) critique and evaluate characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable thesis, appeals, structure of the argument, convincing conclusion, and call to action;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) critique and evaluate the effectiveness of characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(8) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) evaluate the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) evaluate use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) critique and evaluate how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) evaluate the use of literary devices such as paradox, satire, and allegory to achieve specific purposes;

(F) evaluate how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the effectiveness of a text; and

(G) analyze the effects of rhetorical devices and logical fallacies on the way the text is read and understood.

(9) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using strategic organizational structures appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with effective use of rhetorical devices, details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence fluency, both within and between sentences;

(D) edit drafts to demonstrate a command of standard English conventions using a style guide as appropriate; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, resumes, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft;

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure;

(E) compose literary analysis using genre characteristics and craft; and

(F) compose rhetorical analysis using genre characteristics and craft.

(11) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility, bias, and accuracy; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as straw man, false dilemma, faulty analogies, and non-sequitur;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism; and

(I) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902233

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 126. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts the repeal of §126.36 and new §126.36, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for technology applications. The repeal and new section are adopted without changes to the proposed text as published in the May 3, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 2233) and will not be republished. The adopted repeal and new section update the TEKS for the Digital Forensics course and update the amount of credit available for the course.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. The 85th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2017, passed House Bill (HB) 3593, adding Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(f)(2), to require that the SBOE approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation. HB 3593 amended TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), to add cybersecurity and computer coding to the courses to be included in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endorsement. HB 3593 also added TEC, §28.025(c)(10), to require that the SBOE adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

In August 2018, a committee of secondary and postsecondary educators and business and industry representatives was selected to develop recommendations for TEKS for new cybersecurity courses for the required pathway. The committee convened for the first face-to-face meeting in Austin in September 2018 to begin working on recommendations for a TEKS-based foundational course in cybersecurity based on the Principles in Cybersecurity innovative course. The committee participated in an additional face-to-face meeting in October 2018 to develop recommendations for a second cybersecurity course that would serve as a capstone for the cybersecurity pathway. At the November 2018 meeting, the SBOE discussed proposed new TEKS for the new courses, and in December 2018 draft TEKS for the proposed courses were sent to interested stakeholders to provide feedback. In January 2019, the committee participated in another face-to-face meeting to review comments provided by interested stakeholders and to finalize recommendations for the TEKS for the two new courses.

At the January-February 2019 meeting, the SBOE approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed new TEKS for Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone. At that meeting, the SBOE agreed with the cybersecurity TEKS committee's suggestion to make additional recommendations for amendments to the Digital Forensics course. In March 2019, the committee participated in another face-to-face meeting to review and make recommendations for adjustments to the Digital Forensics course.

New §126.36 provides updated TEKS for Digital Forensics and awards students one credit for successful completion of the course.

The SBOE approved the repeal and new section for first reading and filing authorization at its April 5, 2019 meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its June 14, 2019 meeting.

In accordance with TEC, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the repeal and new section for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year. The earlier effective date will make the updated course available to students beginning with the 2019-2020 school year. The effective date is August 1, 2019.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. The public comment period on the proposal began May 3, 2019, and ended June 7, 2019. The SBOE also provided an opportunity for registered oral and written comments at its June 2019 meeting in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. Following is the public comment received and the corresponding response.

Comment. One administrator expressed support for proposed repeal and new 19 TAC §126.36 and stated that the new TEKS should be implemented in the 2019-2020 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to approve the new Digital Forensics TEKS as proposed.

19 TAC §126.36

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeal is adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(f)(2), which requires the SBOE to approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation; TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under TEC, §28.002; TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), which establishes that an endorsement may be earned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), which includes courses related to science, including environmental science; technology, including computer science, cybersecurity, and computer coding; engineering; and advanced mathematics; and TEC, §28.025(c-10), which requires the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeal implements Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a), (c), and (f)(2); and 28.025(a), (c-1)(1), and (c-10).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 11, 2019.

TRD-201902185

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §126.36

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new section is adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(f)(2), which requires the SBOE to approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation; TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under TEC, §28.002; TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), which establishes that an endorsement may be earned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), which includes courses related to science, including environmental science; technology, including computer science, cybersecurity, and computer coding; engineering; and advanced mathematics; and TEC, §28.025(c-10), which requires the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new section implements Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a), (c), and (f)(2); and 28.025(a), (c-1)(1), and (c-10).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 11, 2019.

TRD-201902186

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §126.51, §126.52

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts new §126.51 and §126.52, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Technology Applications. The new sections are adopted without changes to the proposed text as published in the February 22, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 785) and will not be republished. The new sections add TEKS for two new technology applications courses in cybersecurity for implementation in the 2019-2020 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. The 85th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2017, passed House Bill (HB) 3593, adding Texas Education Code (TEC), §28.002(f)(2), to require that the SBOE approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation. HB 3593 amended TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), to add cybersecurity and computer coding to the courses to be included in a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endorsement. HB 3593 also added TEC, §28.025(c)(10), to require that the SBOE adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

In spring 2015, a new Principles in Cybersecurity innovative course was approved by the commissioner of education for use beginning with the 2016-2017 school year. School districts and open-enrollment charter schools may offer any state-approved innovative course for elective credit with the approval of the local board of trustees.

In August 2018, a committee of secondary and postsecondary educators and business and industry representatives was selected to develop recommended TEKS for new cybersecurity courses for the pathway. The committee convened for the first face-to-face meeting in Austin in September 2018 to begin working on recommendations for a TEKS-based foundational course in cybersecurity based on the Principles in Cybersecurity innovative course. The committee participated in an additional face-to-face meeting in October 2018 to develop recommendations for a second cybersecurity course that would serve as a capstone for the cybersecurity pathway. At the November 2018 meeting, the SBOE discussed proposed new 19 TAC §126.51 and §126.52. Draft TEKS for the proposed new courses were sent to interested stakeholders to provide feedback in December 2018. In January 2019, the committee participated in another face-to-face meeting to review comments provided by interested stakeholders and to finalize recommendations for the two cybersecurity courses. At the January-February 2019 SBOE meeting, the board approved for first reading and filing authorization proposed new 19 TAC §126.51 and §126.52.

The new sections add §126.51, Foundations of Cybersecurity (One Credit), and §126.52, Cybersecurity Capstone (One Credit), to the TEKS for technology applications.

The SBOE approved the new sections for second reading and final adoption at its April 5, 2019 meeting.

In accordance with the Texas Education Code, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the new sections for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2019-2020 school year. The earlier effective date will allow districts of innovation that begin school prior to the statutorily required start date to implement the new rules when they begin their school year. The effective date of the new section is August 1, 2019.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. The public comment period on the proposal began February 22, 2019, and ended March 29, 2019. The SBOE also provided an opportunity for registered oral and written comments at its April 2019 meeting in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. Following is a summary of the public comments received on the proposal and the responses.

Comment. One individual from out of state commented that the standards for both proposed new cybersecurity courses should include additional fundamental principles of networking, open systems, internet protocol, network infrastructure, and security.

Response. The SBOE agrees that principles of networking, open systems, internet protocol, network infrastructure, and security are important and has determined that the TEKS for §126.51, Foundations of Cybersecurity, and §126.52, Cybersecurity Capstone, adequately address these principles.

Comment. One school district administrator stated that 19 TAC Chapter 126 should be eliminated, and all the technology applications courses should be added to 19 TAC Chapter 130 with career and technical education (CTE) courses.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One individual from out of state asked whether there is a year-long project that students must complete as part of the capstone course.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Cybersecurity Capstone was developed to serve as a culminating course for a field of study in cybersecurity. Instructional requirements are a local decision.

Comment. One individual from out of state expressed concern that the knowledge and skills statement in §126.52(c)(11) is very general and recommended making the statement more specific by including Windows and Linux, which are the two main operating systems students would have experience using.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of specific operating systems was not necessary and that the knowledge and skills statement is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One teacher asked whether the proposed new courses will be a one-credit course or a one-semester course.

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. The SBOE took action to approve each course for one credit as proposed. The amount of instructional time necessary for a course is a local district decision.

Comment. One teacher stated that the proposed new Foundations of Cybersecurity course should include a cloud-based solution to virtualize networks such as VMSPhere and packet tracers from the netacad website, a website sponsored by Cisco.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that virtualized networks are more appropriately addressed in the Cybersecurity Capstone course.

Comment. One individual from out of state commented that there should be a student expectation in §126.51(c)(14) that introduces students to modern-day cryptography techniques, including exploring why and how public key encryption techniques are used.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that cryptography methods are sufficiently addressed in §126.51(c)(14)(A)-(C).

Comment. One teacher stated that there should be a student expectation requiring students to use scripting languages such as Linux or Powershell.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of specific scripting languages was not necessary.

Comment. One college/university representative stated that by using a behavioral cybersecurity instructional approach and immersive learning systems, students can develop collaborative problem-solving skills while learning how to prevent and combat cyberbullying.

Response. The SBOE offers the following clarification. Instructional decisions about teacher methodology are a local decision.

Comment. One school district administrator asked whether the proposed new courses would be eligible for CTE weighted funding.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Five school district administrators stated that the proposed new courses should receive CTE weighted funding, which would offset costs for special equipment, lab space, and software that are necessary to ensure that programs are up-to-date with industry standards.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One school district administrator recommended moving §126.32, Fundamentals of Computer Science; §126.33, Computer Science I; and §126.65, AP Computer Science Principles, from 19 TAC Chapter 126 to 19 TAC Chapter 130. The commenter stated that the courses should continue to receive CTE weighted funding.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One school district administrator stated that it is imperative that the proposed new courses receive weighted credit for the purpose of grade point average calculation in order to attract quality students in any quantity.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher recommended replacing the term "cyber" with the term "cyber attacks" or "cyber activities" in the student expectations in §126.51(c)(3)(C) and §126.52(c)(3)(B). The commenter stated that the term "cyber" is an adjective, not a noun; therefore, there should be a word following cyber.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the term "cyber" is used appropriately and the suggested language is not necessary.

Comment. One individual from out of state stated that the proposed new Cybersecurity Capstone course should be comprehensive enough so that students could test for an industry certification after completing it.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that additional study would be needed to prepare students for industry certification.

Comment. One community member stated that the physics concept of quantum technology is not addressed in the proposed TEKS for Cybersecurity Capstone. The commenter recommended that quantum principles should be addressed in the courses if the purpose is to prepare students for careers.

Response. The SBOE agrees that quantum principles are important and has determined that they are sufficiently addressed in the student expectation in §126.52(c)(10)(C) related to researching emerging trends such as quantum computing.

Comment. One teacher stated that to teach cybersecurity it is necessary to have a basic understanding of physics, which includes quantum mechanics. The commenter recommended adding physics as a required course for high school students instead of adding cybersecurity courses.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One school district administrator asked whether prerequisites for the proposed new cybersecurity courses will need to be met as is required for CTE courses in 19 TAC Chapters 127 and 130.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. There are no prerequisites for the Foundations of Cybersecurity course, and the recommended prerequisite for the Cybersecurity Capstone course is the Foundations of Cybersecurity course.

Comment. Two school district administrators asked why the proposed new courses are being added to 19 TAC Chapter 126 as technology applications courses when the CTE option on the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) endorsement under 19 TAC §74.13(f)(1)(A) states that courses for this option must come from 19 TAC Chapter 127 or 130.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone were developed as technology applications courses to include in a new cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement in accordance with Texas Education Code, §28.025, as amended by House Bill 3593, 85th Texas Legislature, Regular Session, 2017. CTE courses from 19 TAC Chapters 127 and 130 are one of the other five options for a STEM endorsement under 19 TAC §74.13(f)(1)(A).

Comment. One teacher and two school district administrators expressed support for the proposed new courses and stated that the courses are comprehensive and will make a great course of study for Texas students.

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to approve the Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone TEKS as proposed.

Comment. One school district administrator requested that teachers with CTE certification in the appropriate program area be allowed to teach Foundations of Cybersecurity and Cybersecurity Capstone because the proposed new pathway in cybersecurity for the STEM endorsement is a combination of technology applications and CTE courses.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One school district administrator asked what teaching credentials are needed to teach the proposed new courses.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One school district administrator asked whether the teacher certification requirements would change for the technology applications courses identified for the cybersecurity pathway.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One community member stated that it would be difficult to find teachers qualified to teach this content in rural areas of the state.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The new sections are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; TEC, §28.002(f)(2), which requires the SBOE to approve courses in cybersecurity for credit for high school graduation; TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under TEC, §28.002, and to designate the specific courses in the foundation curriculum that are required under the foundation high school program; TEC, §28.025(c-1)(1), which establishes that an endorsement may be earned in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), which includes courses related to science, including environmental science; technology, including computer science, cybersecurity, and computer coding; engineering; and advanced mathematics; and TEC, §28.025(c-10), which requires the SBOE to adopt or select five technology applications courses on cybersecurity to be included in a cybersecurity pathway for the STEM endorsement.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The new sections implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a), (c), and (f)(2); and 28.025(a), (c-1)(1); and (c-10).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 10, 2019.

TRD-201902177

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: February 22, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


CHAPTER 128. TEXAS ESSENTIAL KNOWLEDGE AND SKILLS FOR SPANISH LANGUAGE ARTS AND READING AND ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE

The State Board of Education (SBOE) adopts amendments to §§128.1-128.7, 128.20-128.23, 128.34, and 128.35 and the repeal of §§128.10-128.18, concerning Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language. The amendments to §§128.2-128.7, 128.21-128.23, 128.34, and 128.35 are adopted with changes to the proposed text as published in the May 3, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 2237) and will be republished. The amendments to §128.1 and §128.20 and the repeals of §§128.10-128.18 are adopted without changes to the proposed text as published in the May 3, 2019 issue of the Texas Register (44 TexReg 2237) and will not be republished. The adopted amendments make technical adjustments, including the correction of inconsistencies that have been identified. The adopted repeals remove the TEKS adopted to be effective in 2009 for elementary and middle school Spanish language arts and reading and related implementation language that will be superseded by new 19 TAC §§128.1-128.7 and 128.20-128.23 beginning with the 2019-2020 school year.

REASONED JUSTIFICATION. In 2006, the 79th Texas Legislature required Texas Education Agency (TEA) and Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB) to establish vertical teams composed of public school educators and faculty from institutions of higher education to develop CCRS in the areas of English/language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies. The THECB adopted the CCRS in January 2008. The commissioner of education approved the CCRS, and the SBOE incorporated them into the TEKS as follows: English language arts and reading TEKS in 2008; mathematics and science TEKS in 2009; and social studies TEKS in 2010. In 2018, the THECB adopted updates to the CCRS for English/language arts and mathematics. The adopted amendments to 19 TAC Chapter 128 add student expectations to the TEKS to ensure complete alignment with the updated CCRS.

In 2017, the SBOE adopted revisions to the Spanish language arts and reading and English as a second language TEKS. The revised TEKS for elementary and middle school are scheduled to be implemented beginning with the 2019-2020 school year, and the revised TEKS for high school are scheduled to be implemented beginning with the 2020-2021 school year, depending on the availability of funding for instructional materials. Since the time of adoption, inconsistencies and necessary technical adjustments in the TEKS have been identified. The adopted amendments make technical adjustments and clarify student expectations.

Additionally, with the implementation of the revised Spanish language arts and reading TEKS for elementary and middle school scheduled for the 2019-2020 school year, the current TEKS in 19 TAC §§128.10-128.18 are no longer needed and may now be repealed.

The following changes to Chapter 128, Subchapters A-C, were made since published as proposed.

Subchapter A, Elementary

§128.2

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(G) was struck.

§128.3

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(ii) was amended to insert the phrase "such as /bla/, /bra/, and /gla/" after the word "trabadas."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§128.4

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§128.5

The student expectation in subsection (b)(2)(B)(vi) was amended to insert the phrase "such as" after the word "verbs" and to insert the word "perfect" after the phrase "past participle."

The student expectations in subsection (b)(2)(B)(xiii) and (xiv) were struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to insert the phrase "verb tense such as" before the phrase "simple past," to insert the word "perfect" after the phrase "past participle," and to delete the phrase "verb tenses."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to insert the phrase "and dates that include the day of the week" after the word "series."

§128.6

The student expectations in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iv)-(vii) and (ix)-(xiii) were struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G)(viii) was amended to insert the phrase "such as" after the word "verbs" and to insert the word "perfect" after the phrase "past participle."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to insert the phrase "character tags" after the phrase "such as."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to insert the phrase "verb tense such as" before the word "simple," to delete the phrase "verb tense" after the word "future," and to delete the phrase "verb tense" after the word "conditional."

§128.7

The student expectations in subsection (b)(2)(B)(v) and (vi) were struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(C) was amended to insert the phrase "character tags" after the phrase "such as."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(ii) was amended to replace the phrase "simple past, present, and future verb tense and imperfect past, past participle, and conditional verb tense" with the phrase "irregular verbs."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(11)(D)(x) was amended to insert the phrase "italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and punctuation marks, including" before the word "commas" and to delete the phrase "italics and underlining for titles and emphasis" after the word "dialogue."

Subchapter B, Middle School

§128.21

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D)(i) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(C) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

§128.22

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(D) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(G) was struck.

§128.23

The student expectation in subsection (b)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(8)(C) was amended to add the word "foreshadowing" after the word "flashbacks."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(E) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

The student expectation in subsection (b)(9)(H) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (b)(12)(B) was amended to strike the phrase "central or."

Subchapter C, High School

§128.34

The student expectation in subsection (c)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(L) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(8)(C) was amended to add the word "foreshadowing" after the word "flashbacks."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(10)(I) was struck.

§128.35

The student expectation in subsection (c)(6)(G) was amended to strike the phrase "the main idea and."

The student expectation in subsection (c)(7)(L) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(9)(G) was struck.

The student expectation in subsection (c)(10)(H) was struck.

The SBOE approved the amendments and repeals for first reading and filing authorization at its April 5, 2019 meeting and for second reading and final adoption at its June 14, 2019 meeting.

In accordance with the Texas Education Code, §7.102(f), the SBOE approved the amendments and repeals for adoption by a vote of two-thirds of its members to specify an effective date earlier than the beginning of the 2020-2021 school year. The earlier effective date will enable districts to finish preparing for the implementation of the revised Spanish language arts and reading TEKS. The effective date of the amendments and repeals is August 1, 2019.

SUMMARY OF COMMENTS AND RESPONSES. The public comment period on the proposal began May 3, 2019, and ended June 7, 2019. The SBOE also provided an opportunity for registered oral and written comments at its June 2019 meeting in accordance with the SBOE board operating policies and procedures. Following is a summary of the public comments received on the proposal and the responses.

Comment. One teacher stated that it would be appreciated if teachers were allowed to teach the TEKS instead of teaching to a standardized, multiple-choice question test.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Dallas Independent School District (ISD) and three administrators stated that it is not necessary to add "central idea" as an additional term for "thesis" in student expectation (12)(B) in language arts Grades 6-8. The commenters recommended that terminology can be clarified in the TEKS Guides.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the additional language is not necessary and took action to strike "central or" from the phrase "central or controlling idea."

Comment. Two administrators expressed opposition to the proposed revision to add new student expectation (7)(L) in English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) I and II regarding diverse texts and varied perspectives.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the addition of the student expectation is not necessary and took action to strike proposed new subsection (c)(7)(L) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One parent expressed concern that the wording in proposed new student expectation (7)(L) for ESOL I and II seems vague. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "explain the ways that diverse texts provide the reader with different perspectives on the same topic."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new subsection (c)(7)(L) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One parent expressed concern regarding the wording for proposed new student expectation (9)(G) for ESOL I and II. The commenter asked why students would be limited to only diverse texts and suggested amending the SE to read, "discuss a text's artistic qualities, with a focus on diverse texts."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording for the proposed new student expectation is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new subsection (c)(9)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed concern that "artistic quality of diverse texts" in proposed new student expectation (9)(G) in ESOL I and II is unclear and not aligned with the "aesthetic qualities and values of diverse texts" mentioned in the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) II.D.3. The commenter added that the updated CCRS standards are already in alignment with the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the 2017 reading language arts TEKS are aligned to the revised CCRS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new subsection (c)(9)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One administrator asked why there was no grandfather clause included with the CCRS to help preserve repeated changes to the TEKS in order to align with the CCRS standards.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Dallas ISD and three administrators stated that the proposed addition of "diverse texts" in student expectation (9)(G) in ESOL I and II is redundant because diverse texts are already required in the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed addition of the student expectation is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new subsection (c)(9)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One administrator questioned the proposal to remove foreshadowing from student expectation (8)(C) in ESOL I. The commenter stated that foreshadowing is a key literary element and an effective entry point into nonlinear plot development.

Response. The SBOE agrees that foreshadowing can be an entry point to nonlinear plot development. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.34(c)(8)(C) to reinsert foreshadowing.

Comment. One teacher stated that districts should be partially compensated for costs associated with implementing the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. One teacher stated that most of the proposed changes are for the Spanish reading language arts TEKS, which is very concerning.

Response. The SBOE agrees that there were more changes proposed and adopted for the Spanish language arts TEKS than the English reading language arts TEKS but didn't find that of concern.

Comment. An administrator, a community member, and 22 teachers expressed concern that the proposed changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS are significant in content and not merely technical changes.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the some of the proposed changes were not merely technical changes. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. An administrator, a community member, and 13 teachers stated that the proposed changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS are unnecessary to achieve quality instruction in reading, writing, listening, and speaking.

Response. The SBOE agrees that several proposed changes were unnecessary to achieve quality instruction in reading language arts. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Four teachers and two administrators stated that the proposed revisions could be addressed in the TEKS Guides that the TEA is developing.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and provides the following clarification. The TEKS Guide is designed as a resource for teachers and is not intended to replace the SBOE's authority to adopt content standards.

Comment. One teacher stated that there was already a public comment period for people to provide comments on the revised TEKS for reading language arts when they were considered for adoption by the SBOE in 2017.

Response. This comment is outside the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Two administrators stated that the proposed revisions do not honor the work of the TEKS review committees for reading language arts that drafted the revised TEKS that were adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the proposed revisions conflict with the work of the TEKS review committees; however, the SBOE determined that not all proposed changes to the reading language arts TEKS were necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher stated that the new reading language arts TEKS make more sense but need to be reviewed and revised by educators for vertical alignment.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that an additional vertical alignment review of the reading language arts TEKS is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE approved additional changes to the reading language arts TEKS.

Comment. One administrator asked what changes are being made to the reading language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS approved for first reading and filing authorization were filed with the Texas Register and posted on the Texas Secretary of State and TEA websites. At the June 2019 meeting, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher and one administrator expressed concern that the proposed changes for the reading language arts TEKS are not clear in places.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that proposed changes were unclear; however, the SBOE determined that not all proposed changes to the reading language arts TEKS were necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. One administrator asked where the revised reading language arts TEKS are located.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The Spanish reading language arts TEKS are codified in 19 Texas Administrative Code Chapter 128. Proposed revisions to the reading/language arts TEKS approved for first reading and filing authorization were filed with the Texas Register and posted on the Texas Secretary of State and TEA websites. Once effective, the English reading language arts TEKS as amended will replace the revised reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017 in the Texas Administrative Code.

Comment. One teacher stated that the manner in which the changes to the revised TEKS have been proposed creates a lack of trust in the review process.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the proposed changes to the reading language arts TEKS were handled in a similar manner to other proposed rule changes. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One parent expressed concern regarding students' understanding of the TEKS and whether students will be prepared for college curriculum and the SAT, ACT, and Texas Success Initiative tests.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that students' understanding of the TEKS or performance on college readiness examinations would not be negatively impacted. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. Three teachers expressed concern that the timing of the proposed changes to the revised reading language arts TEKS will create confusion for teachers and negatively impact students.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the timing of the proposed changes might create confusion. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that adding a significant number of student expectations goes against the original intent to streamline of the TEKS review committee that wrote the TEKS adopted in 2017.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the charge of the 2016 TEKS review committees was to streamline the reading language arts TEKS, but the SBOE disagrees that the proposal called for the addition of a significant number of student expectations. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language in the standards.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the proposed revisions are described as being mostly technical in nature when in fact some are significant content changes and others are redundant.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the some of the proposed changes were not merely technical changes. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed concern that the proposed revisions disregard the SBOE's process for TEKS revisions because the proposed changes are coming only three months before the reading language arts TEKS are scheduled to be implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the proposed revisions are outside the SBOE process for revisions to the TEKS. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator asked when the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS would be released.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. The revised reading language arts TEKS will be posted on the TEA website after being filed as adopted with the Texas Register. Once effective, the revised reading language arts TEKS will then be available in the Texas Administrative Code.

Comment. One education service center (ESC) representative expressed concern that the wording of §128.2(b)(2)(C)(i) is confusing and suggested amending it to read, "spelling words using letter-sound correlations."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.2(b)(2)(C)(i) are necessary. No changes to this student expectation were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative asked why §128.3(b)(2)(A)(iv) and (vi) have been split into two separate student expectations. The commenter stated that these two student expectations are duplicated.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that §128.3(b)(2)(A)(iv) and (vi) are duplicative. No changes were recommended to these student expectations at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative stated that §128.3(b)(2)(B)(i) is unnecessarily reworded from §110.3(b)(2)(B)(i) and suggested amending the student expectation to read, "decoding words by applying common letter-sound correspondences."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.3(b)(2)(B)(i) are necessary. No changes to this student expectation were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative and a parent expressed concern with §128.3(b)(2)(B)(ii) and stated that the list of illustrative examples following the "such as" statement should remain.

Response. The SBOE agrees and took action to reinsert the examples following the "such as" statement in §128.3(b)(2)(B)(ii).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern with §128.3(b)(2)(B)(iii) and stated that the silent h sound belongs with letter sounds, not syllables. The commenter suggested deleting the phrase "words with silent h and" from §128.3(b)(2)(B)(iii) and adding the phrase "silent h" to §128.3(b)(2)(B)(ii).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the silent h sound is appropriately included in §128.3(b)(2)(B)(iii). No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.3(b)(2)(B)(viii) to replace the phrase "common prefixes and suffixes" with the phrase "affixes, including -s, -es, and -or."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the phrase "common prefixes and suffixes" in §128.3(b)(2)(B)(viii) is appropriate. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.3(b)(2)(C)(i) to read, "spelling words using letter-sound correlation and patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV." The commenter stated that students should be expected to spell words, not letters.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.3(b)(2)(C)(i) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.3(b)(2)(C)(ii) to read, "spelling words with silent h and with letters that have the same sounds such as c-q-k, c-s-z, g-j, and b-v."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.3(b)(2)(C)(ii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.3(b)(2)(C)(iii) to remove "silent h."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that "silent h" is appropriately included in §128.3(b)(2)(C)(iii). No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.3(b)(2)(C)(vii) to read, "spelling words with affixes, including -s, -es, and -or."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.3(b)(2)(C)(iv) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative commented that there is no phonemical awareness in the Spanish language arts TEKS. The commenter stated that not including this information is understandable because phonemical awareness is much easier in the Spanish language.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that phonemes are appropriately included in the Spanish reading/language TEKS at Kindergarten.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a student expectation in §128.4(b)(2) to read, "recognizing the change in a spoken word when a specified phoneme is added, changed, or removed." The commenter explained that this skill would align with the English reading/language arts TEKS and would be useful for students in understanding language structure when acquiring English.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the suggested new student expectation would add content and is unnecessary.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a student expectation in §128.4(b)(2) to read, "manipulating phonemes within base words." The commenter stated that this would align better to the English reading language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the Spanish reading language arts TEKS are appropriately aligned with the English reading language arts TEKS.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.4(b)(2)(A)(ii) to read, "decoding words with the silent h and letters that have the same sounds such as c-q-k; c-s-z-x; and g-j, b-v; sílabas trabadas, and digraphs." The commenter explained that individual letters are not sound spellings and the change would clarify the student expectation to be less confusing.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.4(b)(2)(A)(ii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested deleting "silent h" from §128.4(b)(2)(A)(iii). The commenter explained that "silent h" belongs with letter sounds, not syllables.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that "silent h" is appropriately included in §128.4(b)(2)(A)(iii). No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.4(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read, "spelling words with diphthongs, hiatus, and those that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-." The commenter explained this amendment would better align the standards for spelling and decoding.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.4(b)(2)(B)(ii) are necessary and has determined that the student expectation is appropriately aligned with other student expectations. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.4(b)(2)(B)(v) to read, "spelling words with the silent h and letters that have the same sounds such as c-q-k; c-s-z-x; g-j; b-v; sílabas trabadas, and digraphs." The commenter explained that this amendment would better align the standards for spelling and decoding.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.4(b)(2)(B)(v) are necessary and has determined that the student expectation is appropriately aligned with other student expectations. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.4(b)(11)(D)(x) to read, "punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and commas with items in a series." The commenter explained that commas with items in a series is missing from the Spanish language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.4(b)(11)(D)(x) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for adding autobiography and biography to the Grade 3 reading/language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that it was necessary to add literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike autobiography and biography from §128.5(b)(9)(G).

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with using the term "argumentative" in Grade 3. The commenter stated that Grade 3 students understand the term "persuade," but the term "argumentative" is too difficult for students at this grade level.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the term "argumentative" is appropriately included in the reading language arts TEKS for Grade 3.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern with using the term "hyperbole" in §128.5(b)(10)(G). The commenter stated that the concept was addressed in Grade 6 in the 2009 reading language arts TEKS and moving hyperbole down to Grade 3 will confuse students.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.5(b)(10)(G) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. An administrator expressed concern that §128.5(b)(9)(B) states only that students must explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements "in a variety of poems." The commenter asked whether students would be expected to know humorous, narrative, or haiku poems.

Response. The SBOE provides the following clarification. Section 128.5(b)(9)(B) allows districts and teachers the flexibility to identify the variety of poems that may be taught. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that §128.5(b)(9)(B) states only that students must explain "sound devices." The commenter stated it is unclear whether students are expected to know alliteration, onomatopoeia, or repetition.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the inclusion of specific sound devices is not necessary. Onomatopoeia is listed as an example of a sound device in §128.5(b)(10)(B). Alliteration and repetition are introduced in §128.4(b)(9)(B).

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(A)(ii) to read, "decoding words with the silent h and letters that have the same sounds such as c-q-k; c-s-z-x; g-j; and b-v; sílabas trabadas, and digraphs." The commenter explained that individual letters are not really sound spelling patterns and that the currently worded student expectation is confusing.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.5(b)(2)(A)(ii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern with §128.5(b)(2)(A)(iii) and stated that the combination in this student expectation is odd. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "decoding words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that §128.5(b)(2)(A)(iii) is appropriately worded. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative stated that the word "very" should not belong in the standards. The commenter suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(A)(iv) to read, "decoding words using knowledge of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accent."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.5(b)(2)(A)(iv) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a new student expectation to §128.5(b)(2)(A) to read, "decoding compound words, contractions, and abbreviations." The commenter stated this amendment would link decoding and spelling in this grade level.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the suggested new student expectation is unnecessary.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(A)(v) to include question words. The commenter stated that question words were added to the spelling student expectation but not to the decoding section of the standards.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.5(b)(2)(A)(v) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested making §128.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) two separate student expectations because this would align with the English reading language arts TEKS. The commenter suggested §128.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) would read, "decoding words using knowledge of prefixes" and new §128.5(b)(2)(A)(vi) would be added to read, "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the Spanish reading language arts TEKS are appropriately aligned with the English reading language arts TEKS. No changes were recommended at first reading. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to approve amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a new student expectation to §128.5(b)(2)(A) to read, "decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas, including applying the correct emphasis on the accented (orthographic or prosodic) syllable."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the suggested new student expectation is unnecessary.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(B)(iii) to read, "spelling words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-, and digraphs." The commenter stated that letter sounds should be grouped together and syllables should be grouped together.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that letter sounds and syllables are grouped appropriately in §128.5(b)(2)(B)(iii). No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(B)(viii) to read, "spelling words with silent h and those that have the same sounds represented by different letters, including ll and y; c, k, and q; soft c, soft x, s, and z; and soft g, j, and x." The commenter stated that letter sounds should be grouped together and syllables should be grouped together.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that letter sounds and syllables are grouped appropriately in §128.5(b)(2)(B)(viii). No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xii) to read, "spelling words with suffixes, including the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es." The commenter stated that separating prefixes and suffixes into two separate student expectations would better align the Spanish language arts standards to the English language arts standards.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xiii).

Response. The SBOE disagrees. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xiii).

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending proposed new §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xiv) to read, "spelling words with prefixes." The commenter stated that separating prefixes and suffixes into two separate student expectations would better align the Spanish language arts standards to the English language arts standards.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording for proposed new §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xiv) is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike §128.5(b)(2)(B)(xiv).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern with §128.5(b)(2)(B)(vi) and explained that the past participle is not a verb tense and does not have an accent most of the time. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in the simple (past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense, and the perfect (past, future, and conditional) tense."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording for §128.5(b)(2)(B)(vi) is necessary. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.5(b)(2)(B)(vi) to read, "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs such as in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses."

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for the proposed amendment to §128.5(b)(3)(C).

Response. The SBOE agrees that §128.5(b)(3)(C) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern with §128.5(b)(11)(D)(ii) and explained that the past participle is not a verb tense and does not have an accent most of the time. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "consistent, appropriate use of conjugated verb forms in the simple; (present, past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense, and the perfect (present, past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that past participle is not a verb tense and has determined that the suggested wording for §128.5(b)(11)(D)(ii) is not necessary. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.5(b)(11)(D)(ii) to read, "verb tense such as simple past, present, and future and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, and conditional, including the difference between ser and estar."

Comment. One ESC representative stated that adding the term "sobresdrújulas" to §128.6(b)(2)(A)(i) is not a necessary change. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "decoding palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas, including applying the correct emphasis on the accented (orthographic or prosodic) syllable."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the term "sobresdrújulas" is appropriately included in §128.6(b)(2)(A)(i). The SBOE also provides the following clarification. The proposed change in §128.6(b)(2)(A)(i) appropriately replaces "sobreesdrújulas" with "sobresdrújulas," which is the correct spelling of the term.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.6(b)(2)(A)(iv) into two separate student expectations. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "decoding words using knowledge of prefixes." The commenter also suggested adding a new student expectation to read, "decoding words using knowledge of suffixes, including how they can change base words such as the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.6(b)(2)(A)(iv) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative stated that students should be able to spell all palabras agudas and graves and that some of these words do not have an orthographic accent. The commenter suggested amending §128.6(b)(2)(B)(i) to read, "spelling palabras agudas and graves with and without an orthographic accent."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.6(b)(2)(B)(i) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative explained that separating prefixes and suffixes into two separate student expectations would better align to the English language arts standards. The commenter suggested amending proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(v) to read, "spelling words with prefixes" and amending proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xiii) to read, "spelling words with suffixes, including the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording for proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(v) is necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(v).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vi).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vi) is not necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vi).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new student expectation §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vii).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vii) is not necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(vii).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern with §128.6(b)(2)(B)(viii) because past participle is not a verb tense. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in the simple (past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense and the perfect (imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that past participle is not a verb tense. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.6(b)(2)(B)(viii), renumbered as §128.6(b)(2)(B)(iv), to read "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses."

Comment. One ESC representative stated that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(x) should not be added. The commenter stated students have already been exposed to this standard in Grades 1-3.

Response. The SBOE agrees that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(x) is not necessary and took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(x).

Comment. One ESC representative stated that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xi) should not be added. The commenter stated students have already been exposed to this standard in Grades 1-3.

Response. The SBOE agrees that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(x) is not necessary and took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xi).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xii).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xii) is not necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.6(b)(2)(B)(xii).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for the proposed amendment to §128.6(b)(3)(C) but also suggested amending the student expectation to read, "identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes such as mono-, sobre-, sub-, inter-, poli-, -able, -ante, -eza, -ancia, and -ura, and roots such as auto, bio, grafía, metro, fono, and tele."

Response. The SBOE agrees that §128.6(b)(3)(C) is appropriate as proposed. However, the SBOE disagrees that the additional suggestion is necessary.

Comment. One ESC representative expressed concern for proposed new §128.6(b)(11)(D)(ii) because past participle is not a verb tense. The commenter suggested amending the student expectation to read, "consistent, appropriate use of conjugated verb forms in the simple; (present, past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense, and the perfect (present, past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that past participle is not a verb tense. However, in response to other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.6(b)(11)(D)(ii) to read, "verb tense such as simple past, present, and future and imperfect past, past participle, and conditional."

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(2)(A)(i) in Grade 5 to read, "decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas, including applying the correct emphasis on the accented (orthographic or prosodic) syllable."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested wording is necessary and has determined that §128.7(b)(2)(A)(i) is appropriate as proposed.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(2)(A)(ii) to replace the word "using" with the word "decoding."

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.7(b)(2)(A)(ii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(2)(B)(ii) to read, "spelling palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas, including applying the correct emphasis on the accented (orthographic or prosodic) syllable." The commenter explained that the description included with the student expectation is unnecessary.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.7(b)(2)(B)(ii) are needed. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(2)(B)(iii) to read, "spelling palabras sobresdrújulas, including applying the correct emphasis on the accented (orthographic or prosodic) syllable." The commenter explained that the description included with the student expectation is unnecessary.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that changes to §128.7(b)(2)(B)(iii) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(v).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(v) is not necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(v).

Comment. One ESC representative expressed support for proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(vi).

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(vi) is not necessary. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed new §128.7(b)(2)(B)(vi).

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(2)(B)(vii) to read, "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in the simple (past, imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense, and the perfect (imperfect past, future, and conditional) tense." The commenter explained that past participle is not a verb tense.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the suggested language is appropriate. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to amend §128.7(b)(2)(B)(vii), renumbered as §128.7(b)(2)(B)(v), to read, "marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs such as in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses."

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a new student expectation in §128.7(b)(2)(B) to read, "spelling words with prefixes." The commenter explained that this skill is included in with the decoding subsection but not in the spelling subsection.

Response. The SBOE disagrees has determined that decoding words with prefixes is appropriately included in §128.7(b)(2)(A)(iv) and the additional suggestion is not necessary.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested adding a new student expectation in §128.7(b)(2)(B) to read, "spelling words with suffixes, including the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es." The commenter explained that this skill is included in with the decoding subsection but not in the spelling subsection.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that decoding words with suffixes is appropriately included in §128.7(b)(2)(A)(iv) and that the additional suggestion is not necessary.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(3)(A) because most Spanish dictionaries do not contain pronunciation guides.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined no changes to §128.7(b)(3)(A) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(3)(C) to read, "identify the meaning of and use base words with affixes such as trans-, super-, anti-, semi-, -logía, -ificar, -ismo, and -ista and roots such as audi, crono, foto, geo, and terr."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that no changes to §128.7(b)(3)(C) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. One ESC representative suggested amending §128.7(b)(11)(D)(ix) to read, "capitalization of abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations." The commenter explained that there are rules around capitalization of abbreviations.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that no changes to §128.7(b)(11)(D)(ix) are necessary. No changes were recommended at first reading.

Comment. Texas Association of School Administrators (TASA), ten teachers, four administrators, and two parents stated that the revised reading language arts TEKS were finalized over a year ago and any issues should have been identified by now, not a few months before the TEKS are scheduled to be implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that changes to correct or clarify language in the TEKS were necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Four teachers and one parent stated that the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS should not be approved. The commenters added that implementing the proposed revisions will cost districts a significant amount of money.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that all proposed amendments should be rejected. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD, 19 teachers, 14 administrators, and 1 parent expressed concern that districts have gone to considerable effort and financial commitment to adopt approved instructional materials that will no longer align with the TEKS for reading language arts if the proposed revisions are implemented.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the proposed changes to the reading language arts TEKS were addressed in many instructional materials approved by the board. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that districts would have to scramble to find more instructional materials to address the proposed revisions to the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the proposed changes to the reading language arts TEKS were addressed in many instructional materials approved by the board. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One teacher stated that adding literary nonfiction to the revised TEKS impacts the content of the TEKS and is not a technical edit.

Response. The SBOE agrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is a technical edit. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Dallas ISD, one teacher, and six administrators stated that the proposed revisions discount the work of the educators who revised the TEKS in 2017 and decided not to call out specific subgenres, including literary nonfiction.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS discounts the work of the TEKS review committees. However, in response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Two teachers and three administrators stated that adding literary nonfiction to the standards is unnecessary because it can easily be taught without adjusting the TEKS and the cost of updating materials outweighs any benefit.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Seven administrators and two teachers stated adding literary nonfiction is unnecessary because the genre can be covered under existing genres.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One administrator stated that adding the term literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS for State of Texas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR®) testing purposes is unnecessary, and TEA can make STAAR® work without the addition of literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that adding literary nonfiction to the reading/language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher and four administrators suggested that literary nonfiction could be addressed in the TEKS Guides without impacting instructional materials.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and provides the following clarification. The TEKS Guide is designed as a resource for teachers and is not intended to replace the SBOE's authority to adopt content standards.

Comment. One teacher expressed concern that labeling biographies as literary nonfiction is misleading because biographies are informational in nature and may incorporate literary craft. The commenter added that the current interpretation of literary nonfiction in Texas is contrary to the way it is defined by agreed upon experts and that literary nonfiction is a genre of writing that uses literary styles and techniques to create factually accurate narratives.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed addition of biography is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add biography and literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern with the proposal to add literary nonfiction as it is not a recognized genre. The commenter stated that the generally accepted genres are functional, narrative, informational, persuasive, poetic, and hybrids.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the proposed progression of the literary nonfiction across grade levels is limiting because the student expectations in Grades 2-5 focus on biographies and autobiographies, while the student expectations in Grades 6-8 focus on journals and diaries.

Response. The SBOE agrees and determined that adding literary nonfiction to the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike proposed amendments that would add literary nonfiction to the TEKS.

Comment. One teacher expressed support for adding "main idea" to the Grade 3 reading language arts TEKS.

Response. The SBOE disagrees that the addition of "main idea" is necessary and took action to strike "main idea" from §128.5(b)(6)(G).

Comment. One administrator stated that the TEKS adopted in 2009 clarified that "main idea" is used primarily in informational texts. The commenter expressed concern that generalizing the term for all genres as proposed would be confusing for teachers.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed addition of "main idea" in the reading language arts TEKS is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§128.4-128.7, 128.22, and 128.23 and subsection (c)(6)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One teacher stated that changing the term "central idea" to the term "main idea" impacts the content of the TEKS and is not a technical edit.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that the proposal did not recommend changing the term "central idea" to the term "main idea." In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§128.4-128.7, 128.22, and 128.23 and subsection (c)(6)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. Dallas ISD and one administrator stated that the proposed addition of "main idea" in the comprehension strand in student expectation (6)(G) in Grades 2-8 and ESOL I and II is not essential.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed addition of "main idea" is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§128.4-128.7, 128.22, and 128.23 and subsection (c)(6)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One administrator stated that student expectation (6)(G) for Spanish language arts and reading in Grades 2-8 and ESOL II states, "evaluate details read to determine the main idea and key ideas"; however, student expectation (6)(G) in ESOL I states, "actively participate in discussions to identify, understand, and evaluate details read to determine the main idea and key ideas." The commenter recommended amending student expectation (6)(G) for ESOL I to align vertically with the other grade levels and courses.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that the Spanish reading language arts TEKS are appropriately vertically aligned. In response to other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" in subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§128.4-128.7, 128.22, and 128.23 and subsection (c)(6)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. One administrator stated that "main idea" is not appropriate terminology for all genres. The commenter explained that the current term used in the revised TEKS key ideas is more appropriate terminology to apply to all texts with more than one main idea, message, or theme.

Response. The SBOE agrees the proposed addition of "main idea" is not necessary. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to strike "main idea" from subsection (b)(6)(G) in §§128.4-128.7, 128.22, and 128.23 and subsection (c)(6)(G) in §128.34 and §128.35.

Comment. Dallas ISD expressed opposition to the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS and asked the SBOE to not approve the changes.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that some changes were necessary. In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. TASA and one administrator expressed opposition to the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS and stated that the time and effort used to develop a final set of standards that are reflective of current research should be honored.

Response. The SBOE disagrees and determined that some changes were necessary. In response to this and other comments, however, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. One administrator expressed concern that the proposed revisions for the reading language arts TEKS would list poetry under two different genres, which may confuse teachers. The commenter suggested adding a student expectation on poetry in the composition strand to read "compose poetry using genre characteristics and craft."

Response. The SBOE disagrees and has determined that poetry is appropriately addressed in the composition strand.

Comment. Nine teachers, one administrator, and one community member expressed concern that districts would not have enough time to incorporate the proposed revisions into their curriculum resources before the revised TEKS for reading language arts are scheduled to be implemented in the 2019-2020 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that districts need time to incorporate changes into curriculum resources. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Nine teachers, seven administrators, and two parents expressed concern with the proposed revisions because districts have spent a significant amount of time and money training teachers and creating curriculum resources to prepare for the revised TEKS that will be implemented in the 2019-2020 school year.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed changes could impact teacher training and curriculum resources needed to prepare for implementation of the revised reading language arts TEKS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. A community member, 22 teachers, and 7 administrators expressed concern that curriculum resources that the district developed will no longer align with the TEKS for reading language arts if the proposed revisions are implemented.

Response. The SBOE agrees that the proposed changes might impact curriculum resources for the revised reading language arts TEKS. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Two teachers and one administrator expressed concern that many teachers have already attended trainings on the revised TEKS for reading language arts adopted in 2017.

Response. This comment is outside of the scope of the proposed rulemaking.

Comment. Four teachers and one administrator stated that proposing revisions at this time disregards the hours hardworking teachers have already spent training and preparing for the implementation of the revised TEKS.

Response. The SBOE agrees that many teachers have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. Dallas ISD stated that the proposed revisions to the reading language arts TEKS are unnecessary and would negatively impact staff training.

Response. The SBOE agrees that many teachers have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

Comment. TASA and one administrator stated that the proposed revisions are a disservice to stakeholders because stakeholders have spent much time and money developing professional development materials.

Response. The SBOE agrees that stakeholders have already trained and prepared for implementation of the reading language arts TEKS adopted in 2017. In response to this and other comments, the SBOE took action to approve only those amendments to the reading language arts TEKS that would correct or clarify language.

SUBCHAPTER A. ELEMENTARY

19 TAC §§128.1 - 128.7

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

§128.2.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Kindergarten, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively and ask questions to understand information and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) restate and follow oral directions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas by speaking audibly and clearly using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including taking turns; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself, using common greetings, and expressing needs and wants.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) identifying and producing rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) identifying the individual words in a spoken sentence;

(iv) identifying syllables in spoken words;

(v) blending syllables to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting multisyllabic words into syllables;

(vii) identifying initial and final sounds in simple words;

(viii) blending spoken phonemes to form syllables; and

(ix) manipulating syllables within a multisyllabic word;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching the common sounds that letters represent;

(ii) using letter-sound relationships to decode one- and two-syllable words and multisyllabic words, including CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll/; and

(iv) recognizing that new words are created when syllables are changed, added, or deleted;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations; and

(ii) spelling words with common syllabic patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by:

(i) identifying the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book;

(ii) holding a book right side up, turning pages correctly, and knowing that reading moves from top to bottom and left to right with return sweep;

(iii) recognizing that sentences are comprised of words separated by spaces and recognizing word boundaries;

(iv) recognizing the difference between a letter and a printed word; and

(v) identifying all uppercase and lowercase letters; and

(E) develop handwriting by accurately forming all uppercase and lowercase letters using appropriate directionality.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings; and

(C) identify and use words that name actions; directions; positions; sequences; categories such as colors, shapes, and textures; and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(5) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and confirm predictions using text features and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down with adult assistance.

(6) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) provide an oral, pictorial, or written response to a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(7) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine the basic theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) identify and describe the main character(s);

(C) describe the elements of plot development, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud with adult assistance; and

(D) describe the setting.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme and rhythm in nursery rhymes and a variety of poems;

(C) discuss main characters in drama;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) titles and simple graphics to gain information; and

(iii) the steps in a sequence with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(9) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss with adult assistance the author's purpose for writing texts;

(B) discuss with adult assistance how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss with adult assistance how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(10) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan by generating ideas for writing through class discussions and drawings;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by organizing ideas;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts with adult assistance using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences;

(ii) verbs, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular and plural nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) prepositions;

(vi) pronouns, including personal, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(vii) capitalization of the first letter in a sentence and names;

(viii) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences; and

(ix) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) share writing.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives; and

(B) dictate or compose informational texts.

(12) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) gather information from a variety of sources with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.3.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 1, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas about the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, and making appropriate contributions; and

(E) develop social communication such as introducing himself/herself and others, relating experiences to a classmate, and expressing needs and feelings.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate phonological awareness by:

(i) producing a series of rhyming words;

(ii) recognizing spoken alliteration or groups of words that begin with the same simple syllable or initial sound;

(iii) recognizing the change in spoken word when a specified syllable is added, changed, or removed;

(iv) segmenting spoken words into individual syllables;

(v) blending spoken complex syllables, including sílabas trabadas, to form multisyllabic words;

(vi) segmenting spoken words into syllables, including words with sílabas trabadas; and

(vii) manipulating syllables within words;

(B) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) identifying and matching sounds to individual letters;

(ii) decoding words with sílabas trabadas such as /bla/, /bra/, and /gla/; digraphs; and words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs such as /ai/, /au/, and /ei/;

(v) decoding contractions such as al and del;

(vi) decoding three- to four-syllable words;

(vii) using knowledge of base words to decode common compound words; and

(viii) decoding words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(C) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling common letter and sound correlations;

(ii) spelling words with common patterns such as CV, VC, CCV, CVC, VCV, CVCV, CCVCV, and CVCCV;

(iii) spelling words with silent h; consonant digraphs such as /ch/, /rr/, and /ll/; and sílabas trabadas such as /bla/, /bra/, /gla/, and /gra/;

(iv) spelling multisyllabic words, including words with que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(v) spelling contractions such as al and del;

(vi) spelling words with diphthongs such as /ai/, /au/, and /ie/ as in quie-ro, na-die, and ra-dio and hiatus such as le-er and rí­o; and

(vii) spelling words with common prefixes and suffixes;

(D) demonstrate print awareness by identifying the information that different parts of a book provide;

(E) alphabetize a series of words to the first or second letter and use a dictionary to find words; and

(F) develop handwriting by printing words, sentences, and answers legibly leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use a resource such as a picture dictionary or digital resource to find words;

(B) use illustrations and texts the student is able to read or hear to learn or clarify word meanings;

(C) identify the meaning of words with affixes, including -s, -es, and -or; and

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, categories, and locations.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and interact independently with text for increasing periods of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts with adult assistance;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information with adult assistance;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures with adult assistance;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding with adult assistance;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society with adult assistance;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding with adult assistance;

(G) evaluate details to determine what is most important with adult assistance;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding with adult assistance; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell texts in ways that maintain meaning;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character(s) and the reason(s) for their actions;

(C) describe plot elements, including the main events, the problem, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, and nursery rhymes;

(B) discuss rhyme, rhythm, repetition, and alliteration in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and simple graphics to locate or gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and description with adult assistance;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text with adult assistance and state what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss with adult assistance the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss how the author uses words that help the reader visualize; and

(E) listen to and experience first- and third-person texts.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as by drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts in oral, pictorial, or written form by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding details in pictures or words;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past and present verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time;

(vi) prepositions;

(vii) pronouns, including the use of personal and possessive pronouns, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) capitalization for the beginning of sentences;

(ix) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and at the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(x) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules with adult assistance; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) dictate or compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) dictate or compose informational texts, including procedural texts; and

(C) dictate or compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions with adult assistance;

(D) demonstrate understanding of information gathered with adult assistance; and

(E) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.4.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 2, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and answer questions using multi-word responses;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a short, related sequence of actions;

(C) share information and ideas that focus on the topic under discussion, speaking clearly at an appropriate pace and using the conventions of language;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules for discussion, including listening to others, speaking when recognized, making appropriate contributions, and building on the ideas of others; and

(E) develop social communication such as distinguishing between asking and telling.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding multisyllabic words;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) decoding words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(v) decoding common abbreviations; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling multisyllabic words;

(ii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus;

(iii) spelling common abbreviations;

(iv) spelling words with prefixes and suffixes; and

(v) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(C) alphabetize a series of words and use a dictionary or glossary to find words; and

(D) develop handwriting by accurately forming all cursive letters using appropriate strokes when connecting letters.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning and pronunciation of unknown words;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words;

(C) use affixes, including re-, pre-, -ción, and ísimo/ísima, to determine the meaning of words and subsequently use the newly acquired words;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, and homographs in context; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, checking for visual cues, and asking questions when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources;

(B) write brief comments on literary or informational texts that demonstrate an understanding of the text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as illustrating or writing; and

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss topics and determine theme using text evidence with adult assistance;

(B) describe the main character's (characters') internal and external traits;

(C) describe and understand plot elements, including the main events, the conflict, and the resolution, for texts read aloud and independently; and

(D) describe the importance of the setting.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, and fairy tales;

(B) explain visual patterns and structures in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, and setting;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea and supporting evidence with adult assistance;

(ii) features and graphics to locate and gain information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as chronological order and cause and effect stated explicitly;

(E) recognize characteristics of persuasive text, including:

(i) stating what the author is trying to persuade the reader to think or do; and

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) discuss the author's purpose for writing text;

(B) discuss how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) discuss the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) discuss the use of descriptive, literal, and figurative language;

(E) identify the use of first or third person in a text; and

(F) identify and explain the use of repetition.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by generating ideas for writing such as drawing and brainstorming;

(B) develop drafts into a focused piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with structure; and

(ii) developing an idea with specific and relevant details;

(C) revise drafts by adding, deleting, or rearranging words, phrases, or sentences;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) past, present, and future verb tense, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including articles;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey place;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, and objective, and the difference in the use of formal pronoun usted and informal pronoun tú;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects and predicates;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns and the salutation and closing of a letter;

(x) punctuation marks at the end of declarative sentences and the beginning and end of exclamatory and interrogative sentences; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish and share writing.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry;

(B) compose informational texts, including procedural texts and reports; and

(C) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions for formal and informal inquiry with adult assistance;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant sources and information to answer the questions;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) cite sources appropriately; and

(G) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.5.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 3, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) speak coherently about the topic under discussion, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) work collaboratively with others by following agreed-upon rules, norms, and protocols; and

(E) develop social communication such as conversing politely in all situations.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding words with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(ii) decoding words with multiple sound spelling patterns such as c, k, and q and s, z, soft c, and x;

(iii) decoding words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(iv) becoming very familiar with the concept of hiatus and diphthongs and the implications for orthographic accents;

(v) decoding and differentiating meaning of a word based on a diacritical accent; and

(vi) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with an accent on the last and penultimate syllable);

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with the concept of diphthongs and hiatus and their implications for orthographic accents;

(iv) using accents on words commonly used in questions and exclamations;

(v) spelling words based on the diacritical accent such as se/sé, el/él, and mas/más;

(vi) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs such as in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses;

(vii) spelling words with silent h and words that use the syllables que-, qui-, gue-, gui-, güe-, and güi-;

(viii) spelling words that have the same sounds represented by different letters, including ll and y; c, k, and q; soft c, soft x, s, and z; and soft g, j, and x;

(ix) spelling words with hard and soft r;

(x) spelling words using n before v; m before b; and m before p;

(xi) spelling words with sílabas trabadas; and

(xii) spelling the plural form of words ending in z by replacing the z with c before adding -es;

(C) alphabetize a series of words to the third letter; and

(D) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly in cursive leaving appropriate spaces between words.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as in-, des-, ex-, -mente, -dad, -oso, -eza, and -ura, and know how the affix changes the meaning of the word;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of antonyms, synonyms, idioms, homophones, and homographs in a text; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write a response to a literary or informational text that demonstrates an understanding of a text;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell and paraphrase texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer the theme of a work, distinguishing theme from topic;

(B) explain the relationships among the major and minor characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the sequence of events, the conflict, and the resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths;

(B) explain rhyme scheme, sound devices, and structural elements such as stanzas in a variety of poems;

(C) discuss elements of drama such as characters, dialogue, setting, and acts;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as sections, tables, graphs, timelines, bullets, numbers, and bold and italicized font to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as cause and effect and problem and solution;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) distinguishing facts from opinion; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) explain the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile, and sound devices such as onomatopoeia achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of hyperbole.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement;

(ii) verb tense such as simple past, present, and future and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, and conditional, including the difference between ser and estar;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey time and adverbs that convey manner;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, and reflexive pronouns;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of proper nouns, geographical names and places, historical periods, and official titles of people;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in a series and dates that include the day of the week, and correct mechanics, including indentations; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts, including personal narratives and poetry, using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence such as thank you notes or letters.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) create a works cited page; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.6.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 4, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively, ask relevant questions to clarify information, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that involve a series of related sequences of action;

(C) express an opinion supported by accurate information, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, and the conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the last, penultimate, and antepenultimate syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating the meaning of a word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas and graves (words with the stress on the last and penultimate syllable) with an orthographic accent;

(ii) spelling palabras esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate syllable) that have an orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(iv) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs such as in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive to complete assignments.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, and pronunciation;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as mono-, sobre-, sub-, inter-, poli-, -able, -ante, -eza, -ancia, and -ura, and roots, including auto, bio, grafía, metro, fono, and tele;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, homographs, and homophones such as abrasar/abrazar; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer basic themes supported by text evidence;

(B) explain the interactions of the characters and the changes they undergo;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) explain the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain figurative language such as simile, metaphor, and personification that the poet uses to create images;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as pronunciation guides and diagrams to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as compare and contrast;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) explain how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices such as alliteration and assonance achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) discuss how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) identify and explain the use of anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea with relevant details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) verb tense such as simple past, present, and future and imperfect past, past participle, and conditional;

(iii) singular, plural, common, and proper nouns, including gender-specific articles;

(iv) adjectives, including their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) adverbs that convey frequency and adverbs that convey degree;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, and prepositional;

(viii) coordinating conjunctions to form compound subjects, predicates, and sentences;

(ix) capitalization of historical events and documents, titles of books, stories, and essays;

(x) punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences and em dash for dialogue; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) identify primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) recognize the difference between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.7.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 5, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading TEKS embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English sight words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret verbal and non-verbal messages, ask relevant questions, and make pertinent comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) work collaboratively with others to develop a plan of shared responsibilities.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the last, penultimate, and antepenultimate syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) using orthographic rules to segment and combine syllables, including diphthongs and formal and accented hiatus;

(iii) decoding and differentiating meaning of word based on the diacritical accent; and

(iv) decoding words with prefixes and suffixes;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling words with more advanced orthographic patterns and rules;

(ii) spelling palabras agudas, graves, and esdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and last syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iii) spelling palabras sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate syllable) with a prosodic or orthographic accent;

(iv) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(v) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs such as in simple and imperfect past, past participle, perfect, conditional, and future tenses; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, and word origin;

(B) use context within and beyond a sentence to determine the relevant meaning of unfamiliar words or multiple-meaning words;

(C) identify the meaning of and use words with affixes such as trans-, super-, anti-, semi-, -logía, -ificar, -ismo, and -ista and roots, including audi, crono, foto, geo, and terr;

(D) identify, use, and explain the meaning of idioms, adages, and puns; and

(E) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) when reading grade-level text.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing and contrasting ideas across a variety of sources;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) retell, paraphrase, or summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate; and

(G) discuss specific ideas in the text that are important to the meaning.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within a text using text evidence;

(B) analyze the relationships of and conflicts among the characters;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution; and

(D) analyze the influence of the setting, including historical and cultural settings, on the plot.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of distinguishing characteristics of well-known children's literature such as folktales, fables, legends, myths, and tall tales;

(B) explain the use of sound devices and figurative language and distinguish between the poet and the speaker in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) explain structure in drama such as character tags, acts, scenes, and stage directions;

(D) recognize characteristics and structures of informational text, including:

(i) the central idea with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as insets, timelines, and sidebars to support understanding; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as logical order and order of importance;

(E) recognize characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author has used facts for or against an argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) recognize characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of imagery, literal and figurative language such as simile and metaphor, and sound devices achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and understand the use of literary devices, including first- or third-person point of view;

(F) examine how the author's use of language contributes to voice; and

(G) explain the purpose of hyperbole, stereotyping, and anecdote.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as brainstorming, freewriting, and mapping;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts to improve sentence structure and word choice by adding, deleting, combining, and rearranging ideas for coherence and clarity;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete simple and compound sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) irregular verbs;

(iii) collective nouns;

(iv) adjectives, including those indicating origin, and their comparative and superlative forms;

(v) conjunctive adverbs;

(vi) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(vii) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, and indefinite;

(viii) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(ix) capitalization of initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(x) italics and underlining for titles and emphasis and punctuation marks, including commas in compound and complex sentences, em dash for dialogue, and quotation marks for titles; and

(xi) correct spelling of words with grade-appropriate orthographic patterns and rules; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including brief compositions that convey information about a topic, using a clear central idea and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts, including opinion essays, using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that requests information.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate and clarify questions on a topic for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and follow a research plan with adult assistance;

(C) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(D) understand credibility of primary and secondary sources;

(E) demonstrate understanding of information gathered;

(F) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(G) develop a bibliography; and

(H) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902205

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §§128.10 - 128.16

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902206

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER B. MIDDLE SCHOOL

19 TAC §128.17, §128.18

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The repeals are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; and TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The repeals implement Texas Education Code, §7.102(c)(4) and §28.002(a) and (c).

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902209

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


19 TAC §§128.20 - 128.23

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a) and (c); and 28.025(a).

§128.21.Spanish Language Arts and Reading, Grade 6, Adopted 2017.

(a) Introduction.

(1) The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) reflect language arts standards that are authentic to the Spanish language and Spanish literacy; they are neither translations nor modifications of the English language arts TEKS. The Spanish language arts and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of the essential knowledge and skills for Spanish language arts and reading are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. It is important to note that encoding (spelling) and decoding (reading) are reciprocal skills. Decoding is internalized when tactile and kinesthetic opportunities (encoding) are provided. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Spanish, as opposed to English, has a closer letter-sound relationship and clearly defined syllable boundaries. The syllable in Spanish is a more critical unit of phonological awareness than in English because of the consistent phoneme-grapheme correspondence. Syllables are important units for Spanish because of their strong effect in visual word recognition (Carreiras et al., 1993) and their major role in predicting Spanish reading success. In addition, Spanish presents a much higher level of orthographic transparency than English and does not rely on sight words for decoding. This orthographic transparency accelerates the decoding process, and the focus quickly moves to fluency and comprehension. However, in English "sight" words are used because of words that are not decodable such as "are" or "one." In Spanish, decoding issues are not as prevalent as issues of comprehension. These specific features of the Spanish language will influence reading methodology and development.

(4) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(5) Research consistently shows that language and literacy development in the student's native language not only facilitates learning English and English literacy, but is foundational to cognitive development and learning (Cummins, 2001; Thomas & Collier, 2002; Coelho, 2001). Emergent bilinguals (Sparrow et al., 2014; Slavin & Cheving, 2013) are students who are in the process of acquiring two or more linguistic codes, becoming bilingual, biliterate, and bicultural. Emergent bilinguals are often defined by their perceived deficits (semilinguals) (Escamilla, 2012). However, research has shown that bilinguals develop a unique interdependent system (Escamilla et al. 2007; Grosjean, 1989; Valdes and Figueroa, 1994) in which languages interconnect to increase linguistic functionality. This linguistic interdependence of language acquisition facilitates a transfer of literacy skills from the primary language (L1) to the second language (L2) (August & Shanahan, 2006; Bialystok, 2007; Miramontes, et al., 1997). The strength of learning through formal instruction in Spanish determines the extent of transfer to English (August, Calderon, & Carlo, 2002; Slavin & Calderon, 2001; Garcia, 2001). For transfer to be maximized, cross-linguistic connections between the two languages must be explicitly taught while students engage in a contrastive analysis of the Spanish and English languages (Cummins, 2007). Continued strong literacy development in Spanish provides the foundation and scaffold for literacy development given that a Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) exists between the two languages (Cummins, 1991). Consequently, direct and systematic instruction (Genesee et al., 2005) in the appropriate sequence of Spanish skills with early English as a second language-based literacy instruction is critical to student success. As a result of working within two language systems, students' metalinguistic and metacognitive skills are enhanced when they learn about the similarities and differences between languages (Escamilla et. al., 2014). The extent to which English and Spanish are used is reliant on the type of bilingual program model being used (see Texas Education Code, §29.066).

(6) English language learners (ELLs) are expected to meet standards in a second language, and their proficiency in English directly impacts their ability to meet these standards. The comprehension of text throughout the stages of English language acquisition requires scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected oral and written discourse so that it is meaningful.

(7) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency level to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(8) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(9) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(b) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. The student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message, ask clarifying questions, and respond appropriately;

(B) follow and give oral instructions that include multiple action steps;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific stance and position, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively; and

(D) participate in student-led discussions by eliciting and considering suggestions from other group members, taking notes, and identifying points of agreement and disagreement.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge by:

(i) differentiating between commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, asimismo (adverbio)/así mismo (de la misma manera), sino/si no, and también/tan bien;

(ii) decoding palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the last, penultimate, and antepenultimate syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(iii) decoding words with hiatus and diphthongs; and

(iv) using knowledge of syllable division patterns and morphemes to decode multisyllabic words;

(B) demonstrate and apply spelling knowledge by:

(i) spelling palabras agudas, graves, esdrújulas, and sobresdrújulas (words with the stress on the antepenultimate, penultimate, and ultimate/last syllable and words with the stress on the syllable before the antepenultimate);

(ii) marking accents appropriately when conjugating verbs in simple and imperfect past, perfect conditional, and future tenses; and

(iii) spelling words with diphthongs and hiatus; and

(C) write legibly in cursive.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. The student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as definition, analogy, and examples to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic Spanish words derived from Greek and Latin roots, including metro-, grafo-, scrib-, and port-; and

(D) differentiate between and use homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms such as porque/porqué/por qué/por que, sino/si no, and también/tan bien.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. The student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. The student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected text;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. The student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. The student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how the characters' internal and external responses develop the plot;

(C) analyze plot elements, including rising action, climax, falling action, resolution, and non-linear elements such as flashback; and

(D) analyze how the setting, including historical and cultural settings, influences character and plot development.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. The student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, and myths;

(B) analyze the effect of meter and structural elements such as line breaks in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as introduction, foreword, preface, references, or acknowledgements to gain background information; and

(iii) organizational patterns such as definition, classification, advantage, and disadvantage;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including omniscient and limited point of view, to achieve a specific purpose;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood and voice; and

(G) explain the differences between rhetorical devices and logical fallacies.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. The student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts and details;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard Spanish conventions, including:

(i) complete complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronouns, including personal, possessive, objective, reflexive, prepositional, indefinite, and relative;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions;

(vii) capitalization of proper nouns, including abbreviations, initials, acronyms, and organizations;

(viii) punctuation marks, including commas in complex sentences, transitions, and introductory elements; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. The student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. The student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.22.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 7. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 7 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message and ask clarifying questions that build on others' ideas;

(B) follow, restate, and give increasingly complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) present a critique of a literary work, film, or dramatic production, employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(D) engage in meaningful discourse and provide and accept constructive feedback from others; and

(E) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context such as contrast or cause and effect to clarify the meaning of words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including omni, log/logue, gen, vid/vis, phil, luc, and sens/sent; un-, re-, -ly, and -er/or; and -ion/tion/sion, im- (into), non-, dis-, in- (not, non), pre-, -ness, -y, -er (comparative), -est, and -ful;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to use appropriate fluency (rate, accuracy, and prosody) and adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice; and

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) infer multiple themes within and across texts using text evidence;

(B) analyze how characters' qualities influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze plot elements, including the use of foreshadowing and suspense, to advance the plot; and

(D) analyze how the setting influences character and plot development.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, myths, fantasy, and science fiction;

(B) analyze the effect of rhyme scheme, meter, and graphical elements such as punctuation and capitalization in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze how playwrights develop characters through dialogue and staging;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as references or acknowledgements, chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii) organizational patterns that support multiple topics, categories, and subcategories;

(E) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim;

(ii) explaining how the author uses various types of evidence and consideration of alternatives to support the argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as metaphor and personification achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify the use of literary devices, including subjective and objective point of view;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as direct address and rhetorical questions and logical fallacies such as loaded language and sweeping generalizations.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences and correlative conjunctions such as either/or and neither/nor;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas to set off words, phrases, and clauses and semicolons; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as hyperbole, emotional appeals, and stereotype;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.23.English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8, Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements.

(1) The essential knowledge and skills as well as the student expectations for English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 may be substituted for English Language Arts and Reading, Grade 8. All expectations apply to English Learners Language Arts (ELLA), Grade 8 students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ELLA Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) listen actively to interpret a message by summarizing, asking questions, and making comments;

(B) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems;

(C) give an organized presentation with a specific point of view;

(D) advocate a position using anecdotes, analogies, and/or illustrations employing eye contact, speaking rate, volume, enunciation, a variety of natural gestures, and conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E) participate collaboratively in discussions, plan agendas with clear goals and deadlines, set time limits for speakers, take notes, and vote on key issues; and

(F) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources to determine the meaning, syllabication, pronunciation, word origin, and part of speech;

(B) use context within or beyond a paragraph to clarify the meaning of unfamiliar or ambiguous words;

(C) determine the meaning and usage of grade-level academic English words derived from Greek, Latin, and other languages, including ast, qui, path, mand/mend, and duc; auto, bio, graph, meter, phon, port, and tele; and terr, chrono, audi, geo, dict, photo, and ject;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing sources within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence to support an appropriate response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using newly acquired vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses as new evidence is presented; and

(J) defend or challenge the claims using relevant text evidence.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through the interaction of characters and events;

(B) analyze how characters' motivations and behaviors influence events and resolution of the conflict;

(C) analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) explain how the setting influences the values and beliefs of characters.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate knowledge of literary genres such as realistic fiction, adventure stories, historical fiction, mysteries, humor, fantasy, science fiction, and short stories;

(B) identify structural elements such as rhyme, repetition, and alliteration and analyze how language contributes to the meaning of a poem;

(C) analyze the effect of graphical elements such as punctuation and line length in poems across a variety of poetic forms such as epic, lyric, and humorous poetry;

(D) analyze how playwrights develop dramatic action through the use of acts and scenes;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational text, including:

(i) the controlling idea or thesis with supporting evidence;

(ii) features such as footnotes, endnotes, and citations; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(F) analyze characteristics and structures of argumentative text by:

(i) identifying the claim and analyzing the argument;

(ii) identifying and explaining the counter argument; and

(iii) identifying the intended audience or reader; and

(G) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) explain the author's purpose and message within a text;

(B) analyze how the use of text structure contributes to the author's purpose;

(C) analyze the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) describe how the author's use of figurative language such as extended metaphor achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices, including multiple points of view and irony;

(F) analyze how the author's use of language contributes to the mood, voice, and tone; and

(G) explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as analogy and juxtaposition and of logical fallacies such as bandwagon appeals and circular reasoning.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and uses appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a first draft by selecting a genre appropriate for a particular topic, purpose, and audience using a range of strategies such as discussion, background reading, and personal interests;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing by:

(i) organizing with purposeful structure, including an introduction, transitions, coherence within and across paragraphs, and a conclusion; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific facts, details, and examples;

(C) revise drafts for clarity, development, organization, style, word choice, and sentence variety;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) complete simple, compound, and complex sentences with subject-verb agreement and avoidance of splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tenses and active and passive voice;

(iii) conjunctive adverbs;

(iv) prepositions and prepositional phrases and their influence on subject-verb agreement;

(v) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(vi) subordinating conjunctions to form complex sentences;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas in nonrestrictive phrases and clauses, semicolons, colons, and parentheses; and

(ix) correct spelling, including commonly confused terms such as its/it's, affect/effect, there/their/they're, and to/two/too; and

(E) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as personal narratives, fiction, and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts, including multi-paragraph essays that convey information about a topic, using a clear controlling idea or thesis statement and genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose multi-paragraph argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence that reflects an opinion, registers a complaint, or requests information in a business or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, the student is expected to:

(A) generate student-selected and teacher-guided questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) develop and revise a plan;

(C) refine the major research question, if necessary, guided by the answers to a secondary set of questions;

(D) identify and gather relevant information from a variety of sources;

(E) differentiate between primary and secondary sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) differentiate between paraphrasing and plagiarism when using source materials;

(H) examine sources for:

(i) reliability, credibility, and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as bandwagon appeals, repetition, and loaded language;

(I) display academic citations and use source materials ethically; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902210

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497


SUBCHAPTER C. HIGH SCHOOL

19 TAC §128.34, §128.35

STATUTORY AUTHORITY. The amendments are adopted under Texas Education Code (TEC), §7.102(c)(4), which requires the State Board of Education (SBOE) to establish curriculum and graduation requirements; TEC, §28.002(a), which identifies the subjects of the required curriculum; TEC, §28.002(c), which requires the SBOE to by rule identify the essential knowledge and skills of each subject in the required curriculum that all students should be able to demonstrate and that will be used in evaluating instructional materials and addressed on the state assessment instruments; and TEC, §28.025(a), which requires the SBOE to by rule determine the curriculum requirements for the foundation high school graduation program that are consistent with the required curriculum under the TEC, §28.002.

CROSS REFERENCE TO STATUTE. The amendments implement Texas Education Code, §§7.102(c)(4); 28.002(a) and (c); and 28.025(a).

§128.34.English I for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1) The essential knowledge and skills for English I for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL I) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL I may be substituted for English I as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL I students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. They are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D) give a presentation using informal, formal, and technical language effectively to meet the needs of audience, purpose, and occasion, employing eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and increasing mastery of conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making;

(F) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(G) conduct an interview, including social and informative.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) acquire, demonstrate, and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) discuss and analyze context and use cognates to distinguish between the denotative and connotative meanings of words and phrases;

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as bona fide, caveat, carte blanche, tête-à-tête, bon appétit, and quid pro quo;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) identify, understand, and use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level and language proficiency-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade- and language proficiency-appropriate texts with increasing independence. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and comprehend increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) answer and generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to acquire and deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) actively participate in discussions to identify, understand, and evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from two texts to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support a comprehensive response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as labeling, notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants;

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot in a variety of literary texts;

(B) identify and analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters in works of fiction through a range of literary devices, including character foils;

(C) identify and analyze non-linear plot development such as flashbacks, foreshadowing, subplots, and parallel plot structures and compare it to linear plot development; and

(D) identify and analyze how the setting influences the theme.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) read and respond to American, British, and world literature;

(B) identify and analyze the structure, prosody, and graphic elements such as line length and word position in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) identify and analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) identify and analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) controlling idea and clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii) chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers; and

(iii) multiple organizational patterns within a text to develop the thesis;

(E) identify and analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) identify and analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) identify and analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) identify and analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) identify and evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) identify and analyze how the author's use of language achieves specific purposes;

(E) identify and analyze the use of literary devices such as irony and oxymoron to achieve specific purposes;

(F) identify and analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text;

(G) identify and analyze the use of rhetorical devices, including allusion, repetition, appeals, and rhetorical questions; and

(H) identify and explain the purpose of rhetorical devices such as understatement and overstatement and the effect of logical fallacies such as straw man and red herring arguments.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) apostrophes to show possession;

(vi) accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, and dashes to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix) correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E) use sentence-combining techniques to create a variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F) develop voice; and

(G) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as ad hominem, loaded language, and slippery slope;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism;

(I) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, pictorial, or multimodal, to present results.

§128.35.English II for Speakers of Other Languages (One Credit), Adopted 2017.

(a) General requirements. Students shall be awarded one credit for successful completion of this course. Recommended corequisite: English Language Development and Acquisition (ELDA).

(1) The essential knowledge and skills for English II for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL II) are described in §74.4 of this title (relating to English Language Proficiency Standards) as well as subsection (b) of this section and are aligned to the knowledge and skills and student expectations in Chapter 110 of this title (relating to Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for English Language Arts and Reading) with additional expectations for English language learners (ELLs).

(2) ESOL II may be substituted for English II as provided by Chapter 74, Subchapter B, of this title (relating to Graduation Requirements). All expectations apply to ESOL II students; however, it is imperative to recognize critical processes and features of second language acquisition and to provide appropriate instruction to enable students to meet these standards.

(b) Introduction.

(1) The ESOL Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) embody the interconnected nature of listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking through the seven integrated strands of developing and sustaining foundational language skills; comprehension; response; multiple genres; author's purpose and craft; composition; and inquiry and research. The strands focus on academic oracy (proficiency in oral expression and comprehension), authentic reading, and reflective writing to ensure a literate Texas. The strands are integrated and progressive with students continuing to develop knowledge and skills with increased complexity and nuance in order to think critically and adapt to the ever-evolving nature of language and literacy.

(2) The seven strands of this course mirror the essential knowledge and skills for English language arts and reading, which are intended to be integrated for instructional purposes and are recursive in nature. Strands include the four domains of language (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) and their application in order to accelerate the acquisition of language skills so that students develop high levels of social and academic language proficiency. Although some strands may require more instructional time, each strand is of equal value, may be presented in any order, and should be integrated throughout the year. Additionally, students should engage in academic conversations, write, read, and be read to on a daily basis with opportunities for cross-curricular content and student choice.

(3) Text complexity increases with challenging vocabulary, sophisticated sentence structures, nuanced text features, cognitively demanding content, and subtle relationships among ideas (Texas Education Agency, STAAR Performance Level Descriptors, 2013). As skills and knowledge are obtained in each of the seven strands, students will continue to apply earlier standards with greater depth to increasingly complex texts in multiple genres as they become self-directed, critical learners who work collaboratively while continuously using metacognitive skills.

(4) ELLs are expected to meet standards in a second language; however, their proficiency in English influences the ability to meet these standards. To demonstrate this knowledge throughout the stages of English language acquisition, comprehension of text requires additional scaffolds such as adapted text, translations, native language support, cognates, summaries, pictures, realia, glossaries, bilingual dictionaries, thesauri, and other modes of comprehensible input. ELLs can and should be encouraged to use knowledge of their first language to enhance vocabulary development; vocabulary needs to be in the context of connected discourse so that it is meaningful. Strategic use of the student's first language is important to ensure linguistic, affective, cognitive, and academic development in English.

(5) Current research stresses the importance of effectively integrating second language acquisition with quality content area education in order to ensure that ELLs acquire social and academic language proficiency in English, learn the knowledge and skills, and reach their full academic potential. Instruction must be linguistically accommodated in accordance with the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) and the student's English language proficiency levels to ensure the mastery of knowledge and skills in the required curriculum is accessible. For a further understanding of second language acquisition needs, refer to the ELPS and proficiency-level descriptors adopted in Chapter 74, Subchapter A, of this title (relating to Required Curriculum).

(6) Oral language proficiency holds a pivotal role in school success; verbal engagement must be maximized across grade levels (Kinsella, 2010). In order for students to become thinkers and proficient speakers in science, social studies, mathematics, fine arts, language arts and reading, and career and technical education, they must have multiple opportunities to practice and apply the academic language of each discipline (Fisher, Frey, & Rothenberg, 2008).

(7) Statements that contain the word "including" reference content that must be mastered, while those containing the phrase "such as" are intended as possible illustrative examples.

(c) Knowledge and skills.

(1) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, discussion, and thinking--oral language. The student develops oral language through listening, speaking, and discussion. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) engage in meaningful and respectful discourse by listening actively, responding appropriately, and adjusting communication to audiences and purposes;

(B) share prior knowledge with peers and others to facilitate communication;

(C) follow, restate, and give complex oral instructions to perform specific tasks, answer questions, or solve problems and complex processes;

(D) give a formal presentation that incorporates a clear thesis and a logical progression of valid evidence from reliable sources and that employs eye contact, speaking rate such as pauses for effect, volume, enunciation, purposeful gestures, and increasing mastery of conventions of language to communicate ideas effectively;

(E) participate collaboratively, building on the ideas of others, contributing relevant information, developing a plan for consensus building, and setting ground rules for decision making;

(F) develop social communication and produce oral language in contextualized and purposeful ways; and

(G) listen and respond to critique from peers after an oral presentation.

(2) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--beginning reading and writing. The student develops word structure knowledge through phonological awareness, print concepts, phonics, and morphology to communicate, decode, and spell. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) demonstrate and apply phonetic knowledge; and

(B) write complete words, thoughts, and answers legibly.

(3) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--vocabulary. The student uses newly acquired vocabulary expressively. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) use print or digital resources such as glossaries or technical dictionaries to clarify and validate understanding of the precise and appropriate meaning of technical or discipline-based vocabulary;

(B) analyze context to distinguish among denotative, connotative, and figurative meanings of words;

(C) determine the meaning of foreign words or phrases used frequently in English such as pas de deux, status quo, déjà vu, avant-garde, and coup d'état;

(D) identify and use words that name actions, directions, positions, sequences, and locations;

(E) use multiple-meaning words, homographs, homophones, and commonly confused terms correctly; and

(F) investigate expressions such as idioms and word relationships such as antonyms, synonyms, and analogies.

(4) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--fluency. The student reads grade-level text with fluency and comprehension. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to adjust fluency when reading grade-level and language proficiency-level text based on the reading purpose.

(5) Developing and sustaining foundational language skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking--self-sustained reading. The student reads grade-appropriate texts independently. The student is expected to self-select text and read independently for a sustained period of time.

(6) Comprehension skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses metacognitive skills to both develop and deepen comprehension of increasingly complex texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) establish purpose for reading assigned and self-selected texts;

(B) generate questions about text before, during, and after reading to acquire and deepen understanding and gain information;

(C) make and correct or confirm predictions using text features, characteristics of genre, and structures;

(D) create mental images to deepen understanding;

(E) make connections to personal experiences, ideas in other texts, and society;

(F) make inferences and use evidence to support understanding;

(G) evaluate details read to determine key ideas;

(H) synthesize information from multiple texts to create new understanding; and

(I) monitor comprehension and make adjustments such as re-reading, using background knowledge, asking questions, and annotating when understanding breaks down.

(7) Response skills: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student responds to an increasingly challenging variety of sources that are read, heard, or viewed. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) describe personal connections to a variety of sources, including self-selected texts;

(B) write responses that demonstrate understanding of texts, including comparing texts within and across genres;

(C) use text evidence and original commentary to support an interpretive response;

(D) paraphrase and summarize texts in ways that maintain meaning and logical order;

(E) interact with sources in meaningful ways such as notetaking, annotating, freewriting, or illustrating;

(F) respond using acquired content and academic vocabulary as appropriate;

(G) discuss and write about the explicit or implicit meanings of text;

(H) respond orally or in writing with appropriate register, vocabulary, tone, and voice;

(I) reflect on and adjust responses when valid evidence warrants;

(J) defend or challenge the authors' claims using relevant text evidence; and

(K) express opinions, ideas, and feelings ranging from communicating in single words and short phrases to participating in extended discussions.

(8) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--literary elements. The student recognizes and analyzes literary elements within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse literary texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze how themes are developed through characterization and plot, including comparing similar themes in a variety of literary texts representing different cultures;

(B) analyze how authors develop complex yet believable characters, including archetypes, through historical and cultural settings and events;

(C) analyze isolated scenes and their contribution to the success of the plot as a whole; and

(D) analyze how historical and cultural settings influence characterization, plot, and theme across texts.

(9) Multiple genres: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student recognizes and analyzes genre-specific characteristics, structures, and purposes within and across increasingly complex traditional, contemporary, classical, and diverse texts. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) read and analyze world literature across literary periods;

(B) analyze the effects of metrics; rhyme schemes; types of rhymes such as end, internal, slant, and eye; and other conventions in poems across a variety of poetic forms;

(C) analyze the function of dramatic conventions such as asides, soliloquies, dramatic irony, and satire;

(D) analyze characteristics and structural elements of informational texts such as:

(i) clear thesis, relevant supporting evidence, pertinent examples, and conclusion;

(ii) chapters, sections, subsections, bibliography, tables, graphs, captions, bullets, and numbers to locate, explain, or use information and gain understanding of text;

(iii) organizational patterns such as description, temporal sequence, cause and effect, compare and contrast, and problem and solution; and

(iv) the relationship between organizational design and thesis;

(E) analyze characteristics and structural elements of argumentative texts such as:

(i) controlling idea and clear arguable claim, appeals, and convincing conclusion;

(ii) various types of evidence and treatment of counterarguments, including concessions and rebuttals; and

(iii) identifiable audience or reader; and

(F) analyze characteristics of multimodal and digital texts.

(10) Author's purpose and craft: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student uses critical inquiry to analyze the authors' choices and how they influence and communicate meaning within a variety of texts. The student analyzes and applies author's craft purposefully in order to develop his or her own products and performances. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) analyze the author's purpose, audience, and message within a text;

(B) analyze use of text structure to achieve the author's purpose;

(C) evaluate the author's use of print and graphic features to achieve specific purposes;

(D) analyze how the author's use of language informs and shapes the perception of readers;

(E) analyze the use of literary devices such as irony, sarcasm, and motif to achieve specific purposes;

(F) analyze how the author's diction and syntax contribute to the mood, voice, and tone of a text; and

(G) analyze the purpose of rhetorical devices such as appeals, antithesis, parallelism, and shifts and the effects of logical fallacies.

(11) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--writing process. The student uses the writing process recursively to compose multiple texts that are legible and use appropriate conventions. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) plan a piece of writing appropriate for various purposes and audiences by generating ideas through a range of strategies such as brainstorming, journaling, reading, or discussing;

(B) develop drafts into a focused, structured, and coherent piece of writing in timed and open-ended situations by:

(i) using an organizing structure appropriate to purpose, audience, topic, and context; and

(ii) developing an engaging idea reflecting depth of thought with specific details, examples, and commentary;

(C) revise drafts to improve clarity, development, organization, style, diction, and sentence effectiveness, including use of parallel constructions and placement of phrases and dependent clauses;

(D) edit drafts using standard English conventions, including:

(i) a variety of complete, controlled sentences and avoidance of unintentional splices, run-ons, and fragments;

(ii) consistent, appropriate use of verb tense and active and passive voice;

(iii) subject-verb agreement;

(iv) pronoun-antecedent agreement;

(v) apostrophes to show possession;

(vi) accurate usage of homonyms;

(vii) correct capitalization;

(viii) punctuation, including commas, semicolons, colons, dashes, and parentheses, to set off phrases and clauses as appropriate; and

(ix) correct spelling, including abbreviations;

(E) use sentence-combining techniques to create an increasingly complex variety of sentence structures and lengths;

(F) develop voice; and

(G) publish written work for appropriate audiences.

(12) Composition: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts--genres. The student uses genre characteristics and craft to compose multiple texts that are meaningful. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) compose literary texts such as fiction and poetry using genre characteristics and craft;

(B) compose informational texts such as explanatory essays, reports, and personal essays using genre characteristics and craft;

(C) compose argumentative texts using genre characteristics and craft; and

(D) compose correspondence in a professional or friendly structure.

(13) Inquiry and research: listening, speaking, reading, writing, and thinking using multiple texts. The student engages in both short-term and sustained recursive inquiry processes for a variety of purposes. Based on the student's language proficiency level, and with appropriately provided English language development scaffolding, the student is expected to:

(A) develop questions for formal and informal inquiry;

(B) critique the research process at each step to implement changes as needs occur and are identified;

(C) develop and revise a plan;

(D) modify the major research question as necessary to refocus the research plan;

(E) locate relevant sources;

(F) synthesize information from a variety of sources;

(G) examine sources for:

(i) credibility and bias, including omission; and

(ii) faulty reasoning such as incorrect premise, hasty generalizations, and either-or;

(H) display academic citations, including for paraphrased and quoted text, and use source materials ethically to avoid plagiarism;

(I) incorporate digital technology when appropriate; and

(J) use an appropriate mode of delivery, whether written, oral, or multimodal, to present results.

The agency certifies that legal counsel has reviewed the adoption and found it to be a valid exercise of the agency's legal authority.

Filed with the Office of the Secretary of State on July 12, 2019.

TRD-201902212

Cristina De La Fuente-Valadez

Director, Rulemaking

Texas Education Agency

Effective date: August 1, 2019

Proposal publication date: May 3, 2019

For further information, please call: (512) 475-1497